Articles  http://www.passingdb.com 
Symmetric Passing Patterns  Top 
Author: Christophe Pr?chac
Many passing patterns are symmetric : 4 ct, Waltz, ultimate, triangles, ... . Feeds involving runarounds also enter this category.
Tired to show off in solo juggling, the passing partners engage in friendly cooperation to create beautiful multihand patterns in which improvisation, i.e. tricks and syncopations, is all the more interesting since there is more than one brain involved.
Anyway, in the basic form of a symmetric passing pattern, all partners do the same sequence of throws, either in phase or out of phase. Apparently, there does not exist a comprehensive description of these patterns, although digging the rec.juggling archive unearthed a somewhat related and definitely beautiful article by Tarim (March 94, A new class of passing patterns).
The purpose of this post is to describe all symmetric passing patterns in terms of equivalent solo patterns. As an application, I list at the end all 2 persons 7 objects 3 count patterns.
The analysis to follow makes heavy use of siteswaps. Causal diagrams are also invoked for geometric intuition. It is also rather lengthy ... I believe however that these theoretical considerations can be of practical use, therefore many examples are provided.
This case is wellknown. All jugglers pass and self together the same throws, therefore when someone throws a pass, he is thrown a similar pass so that everything happens as if all jugglers had not passed at all and had instead thrown to themselfs.
These passing patterns reduce to independent identical solo siteswaps. For two people, the number of objects must be even.
Example : with two other waltzers, you can do a 4p 4p 1 PPS triangle pattern.
 Let us look first at the case of 2persons Waltz PSS'.
J2 begins his PSS' sequence 1.5 beats after J1. When J1 passes and gets rid of a club, he is thrown back a P pass 1.5 beats later. Therefore everything happens as if J1 had thrown a P+1.5 self and J2 had thrown a P1.5 self.
This is where causal diagrams provide intuition: translate J2's time axis backwards by 1.5 beats. As a result, selfs are unchanged, J1's passes are shortened, J2's passes are lenghtened, and the two jugglers are now passing in phase, swapping all passes then provides two independent solo patterns.
If n denotes the number of clubs of the valid solo siteswap P1.5 S S' , the passing pattern PSS' must contain 2n+1 clubs, an odd number of clubs. Conversely, starting from any length 3 , n clubs siteswap abc , then a+1.5p bc will describe a valid 2persons, 2n+1 clubs Waltz.
Examples:
222 > 3.5p 2 2 : the slow 5 "ultimate" that Bruno and Hans brilliantly demonstrated in Edinburg.
333 > 4.5p 3 3 : 7 Waltz which Tarim and Martin Frost denote by 966 considering it as a 4 hands siteswap (I find this description slightly akward and misleading as explained later).
 Similarly, for a two persons Pass Pass Self PP'S , P1.5 P'1.5 S must be a valid n objects solo pattern and the PP'S passing pattern will involve 2n + 2 objects, an even number. Sadly enough there is no 7 clubs symmetric PPS (for an asymmetric one, Martin Frost pointed out <4p 4p 3 / 3 3p 4p>).
Examples: 333 > 4.5p 4.5p 3 , 423 > 5.5p 3.5p 3 , two 8 clubs PPS patterns.
 More generally, for 2 persons, if a(1) ... a(L) denotes the sequence of throws, then b(1) ... b(L) must be a valid solo siteswap, where:
Conversely, given any n clubs solo pattern b(1)...b(L) , you may create a 2 persons 2n+k clubs passing pattern with k passes.
Examples:
33 > 4p 3 : 7shower
531333 > 534p333 : 7popcorn,
13141 > 3.5p 3 3.5p 4 1 : why not?
 With more than 2 persons, a general description becomes slightly more complicated, though by no means impossible. Let L denote the length of the pattern and P denote the number of passers. I assume that the set of passers is connected through the passes (thus excluding the popular 4 count squares).
J0 starts first, J1 starts L/P beats later, ... , J(P1) starts last, i.e. (P1)L/P beats after J0. Let us denote the sequence of throws by a(1)pj(1) ... a(L)pj(L) : here a(i) denotes the "height" (siteswap value) of the ith throw and pj(i) means that when Juggler #k throws the ith throw, this throw will be a pass to Juggler #(k+j(i)) [mod P] . selfs are therefore these throws for which j(i) = 0 . This notation is essentially Ed Carstens' MHN notation. Let us now shift back by kL/P beats the time origin of Jk , for all k , as explained earlier. Then, all passers are juggling in phase and the ith throw of Juggler #k has become:
Now, swap all passes! I.e. have everyone throw selfs that are identical in height to the passes they are being thrown. This works because everyone is passing in phase. The passing pattern is then reduced to P independent solo patterns, in particular the pattern of the last juggler is:
By the average rule the number of objects of this last pattern is equal to (a(1) + ... a(L))/L  (j(1) + ... + j(L))/P
Conversely, starting from a solo siteswap with n objects, one may contruct a symmetric Ppassers passing pattern involving Pn + (j(1) + ... + j(L)) objects, for any choice of the destination mapping j( ).
Examples: (they all involve triangles, P = 3)
 { j(1) = 1 , j(2) = j(3) = 0 , 333 } > 4p1 3 3 : a 10 clubs triangle Waltz with passes always to the "next" partner.
 { j(1) = 2 , j(2) = j(3) = 0 , 333 or 144 } > 5p2 3 3 or 3p2 4 4 : two 11 clubs triangle Waltzes with passes always to the "preceding" partner.
 Alternating passing partners in a triangle Waltz will require L = 6 , j(1) = 1 , j(2) = j(3) = 0 , j(4) = 2 , j(5) = j(6) = 0 , so that the number of objects involved will be Pn + (j(1) + ... + j(L)) = 3n + 3 which is impossible for 10 or 11 clubs! Ok, with 12 : 344133 > 5p1 4 4 5p2 3 3 . Kind of ugly but who wants to juggle this anyway? (Of course passing in phase 4p44 is possible)
 { j(1) = 1 , 3 } > 3.33p1 : 10 ultimate with passes to the next.
 { j(1) = 2 , 3 } > 3.66p2 : 11 ultimate with passes the other way round.
 What about ultimate with alternating partners ? As above we need a multiple of 3 objects and there is nothing interesting apart from in phase patterns.
* Symmetric patterns can be used to create asymmetric patterns by shifting the time origins of one or more jugglers as explained above. Examples: In phase 7 ultimate < 4p / 3p > or Tarim's gallopped 7 shower with crossing passes < 4.5p 3 / 3.5p 3 (start 0.5 beats after J1) >
* The notation system used above, i.e. siteswap or mhn, does not say which passes cross. For that matter, causal diagrams do not say it either unless you have decided which hand each juggler uses first. So, do it.
* The reasons why I do not like very much Tarim's notation, e.g. 966 for the 7 clubs Waltz, are first that numbers in this system do not immediately reflect heights of throws and which throws are passes, and second that the sequence of numbers does not actually always denote what the jugglers have to do : as an example 4.5p 1 5 will be denoted in Tarim's system by 9 10 2 , so that dividing all numbers by 2 will yield 4.5 5 1 which is not the desired juggling sequence (and is also impossible since 351 is not a valid siteswap). Also I am more familiar with siteswaps involving 3 or 4 objects then 7 or more :)
5.5p 5 0  5.5p 4 1 
5.5p 2 3  5.5p 1 4 
4.5p 6 0  4.5p 4 2 
4.5p 3 3
4.5p 1 5  4.5p 0 6 
3.5p 6 1  3.5p 5 2 
3.5p 3 4  3.5p 2 5
Odd Passing Patterns  Top 
Author: Christophe Pr?chac
Notes : For clarity, in the causal diagrams below, short and long holds 1x and 2 are not depicted
In all causal diagrams, the causal chains may be distinguished from each other by their different colors. This allows us to represent passing patterns where the jugglers make sync throws: follow the colored paths to understand which hands throw to which.
This pattern is based on 6 sync ultimate. The rest beats of the base pattern offer room to add a seventh club which is passed diagonally to avoid collisions. The version below is way easier for the second passer but it is possible to change roles on the fly.
For ball bouncers only!
Mhn and Causals: Relaxed :) juggling  Top 
Author: Christophe Pr?chac
Multihand notation has been developed by Ed Carstens for use with his juggling program JugglePro. It is an analytical notation system that extends the siteswap construction to an arbitrary number of hands and to an arbitrary juggling rhythm.
Once the juggling hands are allowed to throw at any given beat, one can describe transitions between async patterns and sync patterns or even more bizarre rhythms. Note that in the original mhn system no attention is paid to catching beats, only throwing beats are taken into account.
Multi hand notation, much like standard siteswap notation, is
useful both to provide short descriptions of patterns and to simulate them on
juggling softwares.
Causal diagrams were invented by Martin Frost. They offer appealing
geometric pictures of juggling patterns, particularly passing patterns.
Let f denote the permutation on (a subset of) HxZ defining a juggling pattern,
where H is the set of hands and Z is the set of integers. Then, essentially,
the causal diagram of the pattern is the ladder diagram of f2 (that is: f translated
2 beats in the past).
Now, why is this mapping f2 so interesting?
While the original permutation describes the paths in HxZ of the objects juggled,
the new one f2 describes the paths, or the timetable, of the problems
encountered by the jugglers, which is often all we are interested in: we do
not care which clubs we juggle, we merely want to sustain the pattern as a whole.
This construction works fine both for async patterns and sync patterns. It needs to be adapted however in order to allow for more general patterns: transitions between different rhythms, galloped patterns, etc ...
Causal diagrams are often much easier to use than siteswap/mhn descriptions when one tries to work out syncopations in passing patterns. They are also a powerful tool to discover (i.e., most often, rediscover :)) new patterns.
In this page and its complement, the hurries page, the mhn system and the causal diagram construction are adapted so as to obtain a complete correspondence beween the two notation systems.
The main novelty in the mhn system used here is that it explicitely takes into account the "catching beats", henceforth refered to as dwell beats.
The causal diagram construction is also slightly modified: this concerns essentially the representation of an empty hand 0 and a short hold 1x .
Common juggling wisdom as well as practise suggest that in normal situations, the same hand cannot throw twice in a row (unless hurried throws are allowed). Between two throwing beats, there must be one beat where the hand catches a new object and prepares for the next throw.
Let s be the siteswap value of a throw, s >= 2 , s tells us
how many beats in the future the object will be rethrown (or maybe held further
for a while), it does not tell us however how many beats the object spends in
the air.
The usual implicit assumption is that the airtime value will lie somewhere strictly
between s2 and s , depending on the style of the juggler, or in technical terms
on his choice of dwell ratio.
Here we will adopt a "relaxed" style of juggling, assuming an airtime value strictly less than s1 which means that once an object is caught, it will spend at least one beat in the hand before being rethrown. This assumption is necessary if we want to allow the possibility to violate it later in the hurries page! Anyway, in this page it will be maintained throughout:
Assumption
To a throw of siteswap value s corresponds an airtime
value
strictly less than s1
After an object has landed, it will be prepared for the next throw:
Definition
For an object thrown with siteswap value s , the juggling action that takes place in the target hand s1 beats later, i.e. one beat before it is rethrown, is refered to as a dwell hold
Exceptions for some "small throws":
The "relaxed juggling" assumption does not apply when s=0  an empty hand  or s=1x  a short hold. There will be no corresponding dwell hold.
When s=2  a "throw" usually interpreted as a long hold  it does apply if this 2 is indeed thrown.
When s=1  a fast handacross  the relaxed juggling assumption is difficult to meet: the club should land in the past! We will maintain it however, obviously an idealization, and the dwell hold takes place immediately in the target hand.
Throws are denoted as in JoePass!
However, for "inactive" hands, it is essential to differentiate between the
two following cases:
The hand is empty.
The hand has just caught an object and is doing a dwell hold.
Note that this distinction makes no sense in the original mhn system since both cases correspond to an absence of throw and pure mhn, as well as genuine siteswap theory, only cares about throws.
For a given hand, a dwell hold will be denoted by a dash:  .
For an object thrown at beat t with a siteswap value s>=2 ,
landing will occur between beats t+s2 and t+s1 , according to the previous
assumption. Therefore the target hand must empty itself or be already empty
s2 beats in the future.
Hence the causal arrow representing the throw will be of length s2 .
In particular, a 2 throw will be depicted by a closed loop and a 2x throw by
a vertical arrow.
A fast handacross 1 requires the target hand to be ready for catch immediately, i.e., it must have emptied itself previously. Hence a 1 beat crossing backwards arrow.
A short hold 1x is a problem only for this very hand that is currently doing the short hold. We will depict this by a big point.
An empty hand 0 can only occur if this hand has thrown or was already empty one beat before. Hence a 1 beat horizontal backwards arrow.
A dwell hold  is not really a throw. It will not be depicted
Actually, short holds 1x and long holds 2 do not really need to be depicted. They offer no additional information to reconstruct a mhn pattern from a causal diagram (unless one wants to emphasize if a 2 is thrown or held). For clarity, and particularly in passing patterns, they will often not be depicted.
action 
mhn value  causal arrow 
dwell hold    not depicted 
empty hand  0  1 beat backwards arrow 
short hold  1x  big point (or not depicted) 
long "hold"  2  closed loop (or not depicted) 
fast handacross  1  1 beat crossing backwards arrow 
slow handacross  2x  vertical arrow 
throw s >= 3  s  s2 beats forwards arrow 
1
mhn: ( , 1)(1 , ) or ( , 1)%
slow 1
1x1
mhn: (0 , 1x)( , 1)(1x , 0)(1 , ) or (0 , 1x)( , 1)%
async to sync shower
51 to (2x,4x)
mhn: ( , 5)(1 , )( , 5)(1 , )( , 5)(1 , )( , 1x)(2x , 4x)( , )(2x , 4x)( , )...
sync to async shower
(2x,4x) to 51
mhn: (2x , 4x)( , )(2x , 4x)( , )(2x , 5)( , )(1x , 5)(1 , )( , 5)(1 , )...
3 cascade at height 5
1x5
mhn: (0 , 1x)( , 5)(1x , 0)(5 , ) or (0 , 1x)( , 5)%
3 shower to high 3 switch
5151 5x1 51x51x...
mhn: ( , 5)(1 , )( , 5)(1 , )( , 5x)(1 , )( , 5)(1x , 0)( , 5)(1x , 0)...
2 at height 3!
3x1x
mhn: ( , 3x)(1x , 0)%
4x throw
mhn: ( , 3)(3 , )( , 4x)(1x , )(3 , 1x)( , 3)(3 , )...
4x flash
mhn: ( , 3)(3 , )( , 4x)(4x , )(0 , 4x)( , 0)(3 , )...
from 4 sync to 4 async
mhn: (4 , 4)( , )(4 , 4)( , )(4 , 5x)( , )(4 , 5x)( , 0)(4 , )( , 4)(4 , )( , 4)...
from 4 async to 4 sync
mhn: ( , 4)(4 , )( , 4)(4 , )( , 5x)(4 , )( , 5x)(4 , 0)( , )(4 , 4)( , )(4 , 4)( , )...
3 ultimate
There is only one backwards going causal chain. Passes are drawn
in red for emphasis.
See the oddpatterns page for more interesting passing
patterns where the jugglers throw sync throws.
mhn: <(0 , 3p) ( , 0) (3p , 0) (0 , ) 
(0 , ) (0 , 3px) ( , 0) (3px , 0)>
4 ultimate
With flat vertical passes as in Marc and Benji's beautiful number.
mhn: <( , 2p) (2p , ) 
( , 2p) (2p , ) >
5 ultimate, 2 beats version
(holds are not represented)
mhn: <(2 , 3p) ( , ) (3p , 2) ( , ) 
( , )(2 , 3px)( , ) (3px , 2)>
Gandini's patterns from hell
Take any symmetric passing pattern where the jugglers throw singles in phase and choose any number k (preferably prime with the period of the pattern). Then replace every kth single by a double.
E.g. PPS with k=5:
A 36 beats cycle! Hopefully, the causal is of no particular interest :)
Kickups may be seen as particular cases of multiplex throws. The analysis developed in this page extends easily to multiplex patterns. I skip however a formal mhn description of the patterns for simplicity. Also, in the causal diagrams below, I omit the backwards going arrows that indicate that the foot is empty after the kickup.
6 to 7 Shower
J2 throws a straight double pass on his pass beat, this is a signal for J1 to switch into the 7 clubs version of the pattern.
6 to 7 Waltz
J2 throws a straight double pass (of siteswap value 4.5) on his pass beat, thus signalling to J1 to switch into the 7 clubs PSS pattern with double passes.
6 to 7 PPS
J2 throws crossing double passes on his pass beats, this again is a signal for J1 to start doing his part of the 7 clubs version of the pattern.
Mhn and Causals: Hurried patterns  Top 
Author: Christophe Pr?chac
The concept of hurry was first developed by Martin Frost in an
excellent article of the Fall '97 issue of Juggler's World.
More recent treatments of the subject, with special emphasis on 3 count passing,
were given by Isaac Orr in Juggle, 2000 and Wolfgang Westerboer in Kaskade,
2000.
Here, all 3 clubs are thrown at single height. Two clubs are always thrown to the same hand the remaining club crosses back and forth. The crossing club, although thrown at height 3 , is always rethrown after 2 beats, the noncrossing clubs however are thrown every 4 beats.
We feel that the traditional definition is a little bit unprecise, for instance the following pattern
is not a hurried pattern although it follows the hand pattern RRLL. Here, 3 clubs are juggled at height 5, on triples if you wish, but they are rethrown every 6 beats, making the pattern very relaxed indeed.
Moreover, one may encounter hurries even under the regular RL hand pattern,
e.g. :
that is: juggling 3 clubs in doubles in frenzy circus style. The clubs are thrown at height 4 but rethrown every 3 beats, i.e. 1 beat earlier than normal.
We will therefore adopt the following:
Definition
A hurry occurs whenever, skipping the dwell hold,
a club is rethrown 1 beat too early
Here, we develop a simple method to translate any hurried pattern in the familiar language of sync siteswap theory.
The method is based on the following simple observation: when
we watch someone doing a slow 3 clubs cascade, there is no way to decide whether
he is doing the async siteswap 3 with a high dwell ratio or the sync siteswap
(2 , 4x)(4x , 2).
Indeed, the ladder diagrams of 3 with a dwell ratio d > 0.5 , and (2 , 4x)(4x
, 2) with a dwell ratio of 2d1 are the same.
This simple observation holds for any juggling pattern, hurried
or unhurried. Given our assumption of a dwell ratio greater than 0.5 , any mhn
juggling pattern, hurried or unhurried, can be reinterpreted as a unhurried
sync siteswap juggling pattern.
Essentially it amounts to reinterpret all dwell holds  as short holds 1x ,
and to double the time scale.
For example, the 3 patterns above can be written in sync notation as:
3x3*  sync: (2 , 4)(2 , 4x)(4 , 2)(4x , 2)  
1x5  sync: (0 , 2)(2 , 8x)(2 , 0)(8x , 2)  
4x*  sync: (0 , 6x)(6x , 0) 
This way to denote hurried patterns is useful to emulate hurried,
and other nonstandard rhythm patterns such as 1x5 , on juggling simulation
softwares.
You might need to adjust heights and/or number of spins to get a reasonable
animation. Also the animated juggler will move his hands during the numerous
2 holds appearing in the sync representation
Hurried passing patterns can be written in sync notation as well (and therefore be animated), e.g. Mild Madness:
can be written in sync form as:
The following section proposes a lighter and more direct way to represent hurried patterns.
Starting from mhn notation, we now allow for the possibility to
throw one beat earlier than normaly implied by the throw (siteswap) sequence.
Following common usage, a hurried throw will be identified by a star: *
.
To say that a throw of siteswap value s >= 2 leads to a hurried throw t*, means that the club will be rethrown with a throw value of t after only s1 beats instead of s beats, i.e. skipping the usual dwell beat.
Not of much practical use, but in theory a fast handacross 1 can lead to a hurried throw as well: the club is then rethrown immediately.
The hurried patterns presented previously can be written as:
3x3*  mhn*: ( , 3x)(1x , 3*)(3x , )(3* , 1x)  
4x*  mhn*: (0 , 4x*)(4x* , 0)  
Mild Madness  mhn*: <( , 3p)(3p , 2x*)(3* , )( , 3p)(3p , )( , 3) %   
( , 3px )(3px , )( , 3)(3px , )(2x* , 3px)( , 3*) %> 
which is much more understandable at first glance than in the sync notation:
The sequence ( , 3x)(1x , 3*)(3x , )(3* , 1x) clearly indicates what is going on in 3x3* : self R , followed by crossing R , then self L and crossing L , all in singles. The * on the crossing throws point out that the crossing throws are the difficult throws of the pattern. The short holds 1x are additional information that may or may not be used.
(0 , 4x*)(4x* , 0) is also quite clear: fast crossing doubles.
Finally, in Mild Madness, the sequence
Checking the validity of a hurried mhn* pattern is essentially
the same as for a regular mhn pattern: follow the numbers and make sure that
they define a valid permutation.
Now, however, when one traces the path of an object, one has to make sure at
each rethrowing beat that the object has not already been rethrown one beat
before as a hurried throw. With some practise it is not really difficult.
From a pure mathematical point of view, a hurried throw is equivalent to a normal throw combined with a throw one beat later that goes one beat in the past: * = 1x one beat later. This observation does not seem to be very useful except for the following:
The average rule still holds:
Count each hurried pointer * as an additional 1 throw, then the average of the throws over time, multiplied by the number of hands, must equal the number of clubs
Since mhn* and sync are analytical representations of the same patterns, it is possible to translate from one language to the other. The glossary goes as follows:
mhn  sync  
s , s >= 3  2s2 x if s odd ; 2s2 if s even  
sx , s >= 3  2s2 if s odd ; 2s2 x if s even  
2  2  
2x  2x  
1  0x  
1x  2  
0  0  
  2 
Notes:
The causal diagrams of the patterns, written in mhn* or sync are of course the same, up to the doubling of the time scale and to the representations of the various holds 2 , 1x ,  which are anyway redundant and can be omitted if one wishes.
Whether a throw is hurried or not has no influence on its sync translation.
Translating back from sync to mhn is also possible, although the
three mhn "throws"  , 1x , 2 correspond to the same sync throw 2 . Precise
description is left to the reader :).
Anyway, the hurried throws are the throws that are immediately preceded by an
empty hand or another throw from the same hand that is not a 1x .
Alternating two clubs singles in one hand
Throws are drawn in green for emphasis.
mhn*: (0 , 3x)(0 , 3x*)(0 , 3*)(0 , )( , 3)%
sync: (0 , 4)(0 , 4)(0 , 4x)(0 , 2)(2 , 4x)%
4 doubles/singles switch
mhn*: (4 , 4)( , )(4 , 4)( , )(3x , 3x)(3x* , 3x*)(3x* , 3x*)(4* , 4*)( , )
sync: (6 , 6)(2 , 2)(6 , 6)(2 , 2)(4 , 4)(4 , 4)(4 , 4)(6 , 6)(2 , 2)
1 up 2 up
Starting from the pattern 3x3* , the rest beats are suppressed and used for additional (hurried) selfs. This trick can be applied in many hurried passing patterns, e.g. Jim's 3 count.
mhn*: (3x* , 3x*)(0 , 3*)(3x* , 3x*)(3* , 0)
Alternating shuffle
mhn*: ( , 3*)(2x , 3*)(3* , )(3* , 2x)
A nice trick
Two versions:
mhn: (4 , 4)(1* , )(0 , 4)( , )%
mhn: (4 , 4)(2x* , 0)(0 , 4*)( , )%
A 4 objects 4 count tennis
mhn*: ( , 4x)(4x , )(4* , 1x)( , 4) %
A nice 3 count trick
With the handacross behind the back
mhn*: <(3px* , 0) (4* , 4*) (2x* , 0) (0 , 3px*) (4* , 4*) (0
, 2x*) 
( , 3p) (3 , ) ( , 3) (3p , ) ( , 3) (3 , ) >
sync: <(4p , 0) (6 , 6) (2x , 0) (0 , 4p) (6 , 6) (0 , 2x) 
(2 , 4px) (4x , 2) (2 , 4x) (4px , 2) (2 , 4x) (4x , 2) >
A PPS trick
J1 throws his second pass in advance as a straight double. Follow the colored causal paths to understand which hands throw to which.
mhn*: <(4p* , 3p) (0 , ) ( , 3) (3p , 4p*) ( , 0) (3 , )

( , 3p) (3p , ) ( , 3) (3p , ) ( , 3p) (3 , )>
sync: <(6p , 4px) (0 , 2) (2 , 4x) (4px , 6p) (2 , 0) (4x , 2)

(2 , 4px) (4px , 2) (2 , 4x) (4px , 2) (2 , 4px) (4x , 2)>
async/sync ultimate
J1 forces the rhythm to change without throwing doubles.
mhn*: <( , 3p) (3p , ) (3p* , 3p) (0 , ) (3p , 3p) (3p* ,
) (0 , 3p) (3p , ) 
( , 3p) (3p , ) ( , 3p) (3p , 3p*) ( , ) (3p , 3p) ( , 3p*) (3p , ) >
sync: <(2 , 4px) (4px , 2) (4px , 4px) (0 , 2) (4px , 4px) (4px
, 2) (0 , 4px) (4px , 2) 
(2 , 4px) (4px , 2) (2 , 4px) (4px , 4px) (2 , 2) (4px , 4px) (2 , 4px) (4px
, 2) >
Martin's ultimate
mhn*: <( , 3p) (3p , 2x*) (3p* , ) ( , 3p) % 
( , 3px*) (3px , ) ( , 3px) (3px , 2x*) % >
sync: <(2 , 4px) (4px , 2x) (4px , 2) (2 , 4px) % 
(2 , 4p) (4p , 2) (2 , 4p) (4p , 2x) % >
0 sync shower!
See (0x,0x).txt for more on this nice pattern.
mhn: (1* , 1*)
Akward 1 shower
mhn: (1* , 2x*)
Fast 2 shower
mhn: (2x* , 2x*)
Siteswap sharing and feed passing patterns  Top 
Author: Christophe Pr?chac
(As posted on rec.juggling, February 2001)
This article presents a simple way to deduce (k+1)people (3k+n)clubs feed passing patterns from nclubs solo siteswaps. A nonexhaustive series of feed passing patterns is constructed by this method as an application: included are many popular feeds, such as the shower and ultimate feeds, as well as some lesser known exotic patterns of the hurried and slowfast variety. The only essential restriction is that the selfs of the feedees have to be ordinary singles of siteswap value 3 : you better bring your own popcorn then, if you wish to proceed (and perhaps some aspirin too :)).
Start with everyone juggling solo (but perhaps not in phase): one juggler, the feeder, is juggling a n clubs solo siteswap, while the other jugglers, the feedees, juggle ordinary 3 clubs cascades. Now, at some point, the feeder can choose not to do a particular solo throw of siteswap value s but to do a pass instead of siteswap value a to some feedee ; the feedee will then reply by a pass of siteswap value b after a delay of d beats. To keep the patterns going without trouble (i.e. drops) it must be that b+d = s and ad = 3. If passes are done to the same height (an assumption that can be relaxed at will later on, see the 10 clubs PPS feeds below), we get
That's about it basically. The main interest of this method is that it reduces the search of patterns that follow a specific rhythm for the feeder  say PPS  to the examination of simple solo siteswaps  ss'3 in the previous case. Therefore the patterns to follow will be classified according to the feeder's rhythm: shower, ultimate, etc ...
All passing patterns are written in the siteswap syntax of Wolfgang's irrelevant :) juggling simulator JoePass! available at : http://www.koelnvention.de/software/joepass/index.html (hey, Wolfie I haven't received your check yet, are you sure it's in the mail??). If you can't juggle them, you can at least watch them!
A remark about the directions of the passes (straight or crossing): they depend on which hands are used first by the jugglers. The default hand pattern in JoePass! has everybody starting from the right hand but you can change this by using the #jugglerStartLeft n switch (n: number of juggler you wish to change). A similar remark holds for outside passes versus inside passes (see e.g. the 10 clubs ultimate feed below).
Let us start with the most popular feeds:
3333 and passing on the first and third throws > a = 3 , d = 0
Similarly 5353 > a = 4 , d = 1
(Add #jugglerStartLeft 2,3 to make the feedees pass from the right hand as usual)
etc ... you get the picture: 7373 > a = 5 , d = 2
33 and passing on all beats > a = 3 , d = 0
44 > a = 3.5 , d = 0.5
(Since juggler 2 is on the left of juggler 1 in the default position, you may wish to add #jugglerStartLeft 1 to have the feeder make outside passes as usual)
55 > a = 4, d = 1
Since there is no 4 clubs siteswap of the form ss'3 with s=s', it is clear that there can be no symmetric 10 clubs PPS feed. Many assymetric patterns are possible however.
453 and passing on the first two beats would yield a = 3.5 , d = 0.5 for one feedee and a = 4, d = 1 for the other feedee, resulting in:
This pattern might feel a bit strange to the feeder: the passes are very close to each other but different nevertheless, it is therefore perhaps safer (more stable) to change the delay of one feedee. There are four possibilities:
#extendedSiteswap #cpn
#delayMode  #jugglerDelay 2 0.5 #jugglerDelay 3 0.5
< 3.5p2 3.5p3 3  3.5p1x 3 3  3 4.5p1x 3 >
The 4 clubs siteswap 633 provides yet another completely different pattern:
The symmetric 11 clubs PPS feed is well known:
663 >a = 4.5 , d = 1.5
(the feeder is on the middle line in the causal diagrams) Start with the feeder doing sync crossing (!) 4 clubs in singles which I denote by (3* , 3*), see http://pogo5.free.fr/juggling/hurries.html for details on hurried mhn* notation, then let him pass all right hand throws > a = 3 , d = 0
One can add a club to the previous pattern (well, at least theoretically) by starting from the 5 clubs hurried half shower (3* , 4x*) > a = 3.5 , d = 0.5
Similarly, starting from the hurried 4 clubs sync solo pattern (3* , 4)( , 3*)(4 , 3*)(3* , ) and passing the high throws > a = 3.5 , d = 0.5
Getting weirder. Now the feeder is juggling 4 in singles the usual async fountain way and still 2 times faster than the feedees. This pattern can be denoted by 3x* keeping in mind that throws occur every half beat (the tempo is given by the feedees). Passing all throws we get a = 3 , d = 0 and a pattern that can be denoted as:
Still crazier and a special dedication to some onebearded multihanded British passing guru. To get the usual 9 clubs version of Alan's Anguish, we need the feeder to juggle a 3 clubs cascade 2 times faster than the feedees. Let us (or at least let me!) denote this pattern by 2.5x*, still remembering that throws occur every half beat (2.5 throws should "normally" be rethrown after 2.5 beats, but due to the hurry pointers '*' everywhere, all throws are actually rethrown 1 beat earlier, i.e. after 1.5 beats). Passing all throws we get a = 2.75 (!), d =  0.25 and:
Just the three of us: Paris gymfloor remix  Top 
Author: Christophe Pr?chac
Credits: Kaskade 62 & 63
As in Kaskade 59, we are just the three of us ... and the song remains the same: what can we do with approximately 9 clubs?
This passing workshop is devoted to a few feed passing patterns with 8, 9 and
10 objects. They are all derived from actual regular practice sessions down
here in Paris, in some dark and  this being written in winter  poorly heated
room. Although these patterns are relatively rarely seen in the gyms, I believe
them to be both interesting and useful for practising more standard patterns.
You will perhaps appreciate that all the proposed patterns can be juggled under
a fairly low ceiling as they contain only singlespin throws (syncopations notwithstanding).
In all the patterns, the jugglers are denoted by J1, J2, J3. The feeder is
J2 and the feedees are J1 and J3 .
In the triangle feed position, feedee J1 is the feedee on the right, from
the feeder's viewpoint..
All patterns are illustrated (and summed up) by causal diagrams. The feeder
J2 stands on the middle line, feedee J1 is above on the first line, and feedee
J3 is below on the third line. The causal diagram also contains implicitely
the starting position: each hand at the beginning of the diagram starts the
pattern with 2 clubs, the other hands start the pattern with 1 club.
Say you are three passing partners but you only have eight clubs. Do you desperately need to borrow an additional club?? No! Just as it is possible for two passers to have fun with 5 clubs, see the article on 5clubs ultimate in Kaskade 56, there exist 8clubs feeds that are both interesting and enjoyable. Alternatively, you may consider practicing these patterns as warmup exercises before more serious stuff, or ... as chillout sessions after some furious number passing.
Everybody juggles an ultimate pattern: no selfs, only passes. But the feeder
and the feedees follow different rhythms.
The feeder  on the middle line, in the diagram above  is on the fast side: he (or she, of course) juggles on a standard ultimate rhythm and makes only outside passes along the sequence: Cross, Cross, Straight, Straight, or in other words: R to J1R, L to J3L, R to J1L, L to J3R.
The feedees are on the slow side: they juggle twice slower than the feeder, as if doing one side of the 2passers 5clubs ultimate pattern on a rather quiet pace. This huge amount of time for the feedees between the passes can (must?) be put to good use to insert and improvise fancy variations: flourishes, pirouettes, additional throws such as Self+Handacross between passes, box variations: passing with the "wrong" hand while simultaneaously freeing the "correct" hand with a handacross, ...
Starting position: The feeder has 2 clubs in each hand, the feedees have 1 club in each hand.
Siteswap description: < ( , ) (2 , 3p2x) ( , ) (3p2 , 2)  ( , 3p1x) (3p3x , ) ( , 3p1) (3p3 , )  (2 , 3p2) ( , ) (3p2x , 2) ( , ) >
A reasonably simple pattern and a very nice one to watch. In this pattern, the usual triangle position of the jugglers is stretched to a straight line, the feeder J2 stands in the middle with J1 on his right.
The first feedee J1 is doing 4count righthanded while the second feedee J3 is doing 4count lefthanded out of phase with J1, meaning that J3 will start throwing passes 2 beats after J1.
The feeder is now on the slow side of the pattern and he makes only passes
on a very slow pace, but he will do them behind the back or under the arms for
more fun and visual effect.
(Don't be abashed by the backwards going arrows, they simply mean that the feeder's hands remain empty for one beat after he has passed.)
The sequence of passes for the feeder is as follows: 1. throw behind the back with left and catch with the right, 2. pause, 3. throw behind the back with right and catch with the left, 4. pause.
Notice that the rest beats of the feeder allow him to indulge in fancy swinging movements between the catching and throwing positions. Also, the feeder might turn a halfpirouette now and then, resulting in normal outside passes and catches (try it, it really isn't difficult).
Needless to say, the feedees can try to throw all their usual 4count tricks ...
Starting position: The feeder has 1 club in each hand, feedee J1 has 2 clubs in the right and 1 in the left, feedee J3 has 2 clubs in the left hand and 1 in the right.
Variation: Both feedees pass with the right hand making life for the feeder (slightly) more difficult.
Siteswap description: < ( , 3p2) (3 , ) ( , 3) (3 , )  (3p1x, ) (0 , 1x) ( , 3p3x) (1x , 0)  (3 , ) ( , 3) (3p2 , ) ( , 3) >
The nineclubs shower feed is certainly the most popular passing pattern for 3 jugglers, be they beginners or advanced. And for good reasons: it really is a wonderful pattern! The only drawback of the shower feed is that it is strictly righthanded ... In my opinion, a passing session cannot be complete and really fulfilling without a few ambidextrous patterns. Come on: bring some relief to your left shoulder and give them a try!
The nineclubs PPS feed has been already addressed in Kaskade 59. Here I would only like to mention that it is both feasible and entertaining to change roles on the fly in this pattern now and then.
One feedee wants to move to the feeder's side, making the other feedee the new feeder. How does it work?
One solution goes like this:
Assume that J3 , the feedee on the left of the feeder J2 , is also the "second"
feedee, i.e. the feedee who receives the _second_ pass of the feeder. Now, J3
wants to move to J2's side, making J1 the new feeder, he will do this as follows:
on his right hand pass beat, J3 begins to walk towards his new position on the
(left) side of J2, catches the incoming club in the left hand, while still walking
and turning leftwards in order to face J1, and throws the club back to J1 on
his normal left hand pass beat.
So the entire move lasts for 3 beats. During this period J3 can either stop
throwing selfs (and therefore manage 2 clubs in the left hand for a short while)
or keep on juggling normally, throwing his two selfs (I find it easier this
way).
Naturally, the exfeeder J2 will have to stop passing to J3 : he will shift
from PPS to PSS without transition.
While J1, the new feeder, will have to convert his first self into a pass to
J3, shifting from PSS to PPS without transition.
The sequence of throws is summed up in the causal diagram:
Try it! Hilarity and drops guaranteed on first tries!
Remarks:
With every switch the hand order of the feeder's passes is exchanged: in the
example
above from (RO = right outside, etc ...) RO LO LI RI to RI LI
LO RO .
Oddly enough, if the "first" feedee wants to move, the transition is less natural.
See by yourself!
Siteswap description: < 3p2 3 3 3p2 3 3 3p2 3p3 3 3p2 3p3 3 
3p1 3p3 3 3p1 3p3 3 3p1 3 3 3p1 3 3 
3 3p2 3 3 3p2 3 3 3p1 3 3 3p1 3 >
An advanced 9clubs pattern perhaps, since it is a little bit fast. What happens here is that the feeder will do Pass Pass Handacross while the feedees will follow a 3count rhythm Pass Self Self. What? Pass Pass Handacross instead of Pass Pass Self!? How can it be?? Let us look at the causal diagram:
(the backwards going arrows represent the handacrosses)
Notice three points from the causal diagram:
 from the throw positions, one sees that the pattern is staggered: the feedees'
passes are done half a beat after the feeder's
 from the lenghts of the arrows, the (single spin) passes must he higher than
the selfs
 finally, note that the feeder's passes are straight while the feedees make
crossing passes.
Starting position: The feeder and feedee J1 have 2 clubs in the right hand and 1 in the left, feedee J3 has 2 clubs in the left hand and 1 in the right. Each feedee waits for the feeder's pass to be thrown to him before replying by a pass.
Variation: The feeder makes crossing passes and the feedees make straight passes.
Siteswap description: feedees J1 and J3 delayed by half a beat
< 3.5p2x 3 3  3.5p1 3.5p3 1  3 3.5p2x 3 >
A nice pattern, and quite doable if the feeder feels comfortable with 6 clubs ultimate. The feeder always makes inside straight passes. J1 showers lefthanded and J3 showers righthanded.
Starting position: The feeder and feedee J3 have 2 clubs in the right hand and
1 in the left, feedee J1 has 2 clubs in the left hand and 1 in the right.
Variation 1: The feeder makes outside passes.
Variation 2: Both feedees pass with the right hand.
Siteswap description: < 3 3p2  3p3 3p1  3p2 3 >
This pattern is similar to the Eight clubs fast/slow ultimate/ultimate feed
examined previously: everybody juggles an ultimate pattern: no selfs, only
passes ; but the feeder and the feedees follow different rhythms.
The feeder  on the middle line, in the diagram above  is on the fast side:
he juggles on a standard ultimate rhythm and makes only inside passes along
the sequence: Cross, Cross, Straight, Straight, starting with J3 on the left,
in other words: R to J3R, L to J1L, R to J3L, L to J1R.
The feedees are on the slow side: they juggle twice slower than the feeder,
as if doing one side of the 2passers 5clubs ultimate pattern on a rather
quiet pace. Once you manage to get a reasonably stable pattern, the feedees
can try to use the huge amount of time between the passes to insert and improvise
fancy variations as in the 8 clubs version. Note that the feedees always pass
to the closest feeder's hand, namely J2R for J1 and J2L for J3 .
The pattern differs from the 8 clubs versions in two respects however: the pattern is now staggered and the single spin passes should be higher than usual (say, as in 7 shower in singles). Also ... it is much more difficult!
Starting position: The feeder has 3 clubs in the right hand and 2 clubs in the
left, the feedees have 1 club in each hand. Each feedee waits as long as possible
before passing back to the feeder.
Siteswap description: feedees J1 and J3 delayed by half a beat
< (2 , 3.5p2x) ( , ) (3.5p2 , 2) ( , )  ( , 3.5p3x) (3.5p1x , ) ( ,
3.5p3) (3.5p1 , ) 
( , ) (2 , 3.5p2) ( , ) (3.5p2x , 2) >
A few (lowceiling) 10clubs patterns to finish off this passing session.
A logical followup of the 9clubs ultimate feed ... but actually a completely different pattern! (and also a much more difficult one)
The feeder juggles a (relatively fast) ultimate pattern with outside straight passes. J1 showers righthanded while J3 showers leftthanded. Both feedees throw crossing passes. The passes of all the jugglers should be high and lofty, and in any case, they should be higher than the selfs of the feedees.
Notice that the causal diagram is divided in 2 independent parts: each hand of the feeder passes 5 clubs with a different feedee (so that each feedee passes back to the hand that feeds him). You can also readily see that the pattern is staggered: the passes of the jugglers alternate along the sequence J2 J1 J2 J3 . The relative lenghts of the arrows clearly indicate that all passes should be higher than the selfs of the feedees.
Starting position: The feeder has 2 clubs in each hand, feedee J1 has 2 clubs in the right hand and 1 club in the left hand, feedee J3 has 2 clubs in the left and 1 in the right. Each feedee waits for the feeder's pass to be thrown to him before replying by a pass.
Remark: This pattern is also know as the gorilla pattern. Guess why!
Tip for the feeder: practice each hand separately (i.e. with only one feedee).
Variation 1: The feeder's hands pass simultaneously. This is what sometimes
happens naturally after a while anyway.
Variation 2: The feeder makes outside crossing passes (and the feedees pass
straight). I personnaly find this version easier than the true "gorilla".
Variation 3: Both feedees pass with the right hand
Siteswap description: feedees J1 and J3 delayed by half a beat
< 3.5p2x 3  3.5p1 3.5p3  3 3.5p2x >
The ten clubs shower feed in doubles is very popular. Surprisingly, the single spin version is almost never seen.
The feeder will essentially do one side of 7clubs shower in singles ... but
with two partners instead of only one. This means that he will juggle on a slightly
galopped rhythm, the selfs following quickly the passes, with selfs higher
than usual and actually as high as the passes. For the feedees, they have to
make lofty single passes to the same height as the feeder's, and certainly higher
than the selfs ; moreover the feedees might be slightly galopped as well, the
first self quickly following the pass.
The pattern is staggered: the feeder passes first to J1 who will wait as long
as possible before passing back, then the feeder passes to J3 who in turn waits
before replying.
A remark about the rhythm: in actual practice, the pattern is not as much galopped as the causal diagram suggests ; in order to even the rhythm, most jugglers will keep the clubs in their left hands for a longer time than they keep them in their right hands.
There is a collision problem here between the feeder's pass to J3 (on the left) and the incoming pass of J1: make sure that J1's passes are long and high enough.
Starting position: The feeder has 2 clubs in each hand, each feedee has 2 clubs in the right hand and 1 club in the left. Each feedee waits for the feeder's pass to be thrown to him before replying by a pass.
Variation: Switch back and forth from the the standard double spin version of the pattern to this single spin version.
Remark: In case of a drop, the pattern will rapidly settle down to a standard 9clubs shower feed. It is possible to kick up the dropped club back into the pattern as follows: move the club on your right foot, then, on your (last  if you are a feedee) self beat, throw a lofty single pass with the left hand while simultaneously kicking up the dropped club to your right hand. Everybody will feel quite hurried for a few throws. Good luck!
Siteswap description: too tedious ;)
The last pattern is really advanced for the feeder. Essentially, he will do one side of 8clubs shower in singles, passing a lofty single with the right hand while simultaneously throwing a same height single self from the left hand.
Both feedees juggle a righthanded shower pattern with passes and selfs as high as the feeder's (they should try to juggle as sloooow as possible ...).
Starting position: The feeder has 2 clubs in each hand, the feedees both have 2 clubs in the right hand and 1 club in the left hand.
Siteswap description: < ( , 3p2) (3 , )  (3* , 3p1*) (3* , 3p3*)  (3 , ) ( , 3p2) >
8 clubs: synchronous symetric rhythms  Top 
Author: JiBe
With 6 clubs, the base of most passing patterns
is two jugglers juggling a solo 3 club cascade synchronously. They're doing
some singles and alternate right and left hand throws. Let's write that
as:  RH self: S  LH self: S  RH self: S etc... so each juggler's sequence is SSSSSS.... 
J1: SSSSS
J2: SSSSS 
So what happens when J1 decides to throw a pass to J2? J1 now has one less club in his pattern. He now needs to get another club back, and J2 is the only supplier available at the moment. 
J1 passes to J2 > problems 
Solution: J2 passes at the same
time 
J1 and J2 throw synchronously (as passes or selfs) with their RH and LH alternatively.
Selfs (noted S) are crossing singles (RH > LH or LH > RH)
Passes (noted P) are tramline singles (RH > LH or LH > RH)
The rhythms are symetric (symetric passing patterns) and synchronous: if J1 does S, then J2 does S  if J1 does P, then J2 does P.
We're going to do exactly the same thing. The base is now 2 jugglers juggling
a solo 4 club fountain in doubles. We can juggle exactly the same patterns than
with 6 clubs, but some of the rules change:
Selfs (noted by S) are straight doubles (RH > RH or LH > LH)
Passes (noted by P) are crossing doubles (RH > RH or LH > LH)
There is no more singlepass or singleself !
Once the theory is known, there is not much more to say, except:
These patterns are collision prone because both jugglers are passing crossing passes at the same time. See the collision page for assistance!.
In 4count (PSSS), you pass and receive from the same hand. Each club you receive is the one you're going to throw back. In usual 6 and 7 club patterns, this happens in a 3count.
Here are a few patterns you can try:
4count (PSSS)
3count or PSS (and the 6count) are detailed here.
1count or ultimate (P). Also worth trying in singles.
PPS (to be mastered before example 2)
and the chocolate bar (PPSS) !
I haven't tried this yet, however JoePass! can do it perfectly :) , and I think it might be possible to do 1 or 2 cycles if you can already do the above PPS and have understood well 6 club Mild Madness.
Here's how it goes:
J1 (top line in the diagram)
throws crossing passes, J2 throws straight passes
We don't have (as in
mild madness) a passzip, rather a doublezip (the double being a self).
In fact, it's worse than
that; because when you receive a pass at the 'wrong' end, you have to throw
a crossing self double followed by a zip (or at the same time as the zip).
The full cycle is in
fact: PPS PPScZ, which means:
Pass, Pass, Double Self  Pass, Pass, Crossing Double Self, Zip
The causal diagram for
a full cycle shows all this.
8 clubs Mild Madness
Brendan Brolly Notation (or BN)  Top 
Author: JiBe
Credits: original idea by Brendan Brolly
Thanks to Tarim for clarifying some things for us on this matter in Rotterdam. Also, feel free to take a look at the articles posted on this subject at rec.juggling in 1994 (there's one in particular by Tarim that is interesting because it expands the theory to include other rhythms and feeds, which I will do here one day).
This theory, whose application lies essentially in 6 and 7club ultimate, says the following:
To pass 6 (or 7) clubs in ultimate is somewhat like juggling 4 (or 5, respectively) alone, horizontally, from the point of view of one of the two jugglers.
Thus one could try to derive traditional siteswap figures using the following rules. The numbers can be written in BN (Brendan notation), since the pattern doesn't follow the classic rules of siteswap. With 4 and 5ball solo patterns as a starting point, one may be inspired to find corresponding passing patterns.
BN number 
ultimate 6 
ultimate 7 
0  empty hand  empty hand 
1  handacross  handacross 
2  hold  hold 
3  single self  single self 
4  single pass (straight across)  double self 
5  double pass (crossing)  single pass (straight) 
6  triple pass (straight)  double pass (crossing) 
7  ...... (quadruple)  triple pass (straight) 
So that's from the passer's point of view.
For the one who's catching the passes, just one tip: throw only when you have to. To clarify, wait until a pass arrives (in the case of doubles and triples) to empty your hand (by throwing).
The corresponding passes are in red. Note that the top juggler, who receives the passes, waits each time until the last possible moment to throw, the pauses shown by blue arrows.
BN : 53 siteswap : <3p 3p 2 3p 3p ... 3p 4p 3 3p 3p ...> Written out : doubleself 
BN : 534 (continuous) siteswap : <3p 2 3p 4p 3 3p> Written out : double, self, pass, double, self, pass,... Note : this becomes almost PPS 
BN : 552 siteswap : <3p 3p 2 3p 3p ... 3p 4p 4p 2 3p...> Written out : double, double, pause 
BN : 5551 siteswap : <3p 3p 2 3p 3p 3p... 3p 4p 4p 4p 1 3p...> Written out : double, double, double, handacross 
BN : 55550 siteswap : <3p 3p 2 3p 3p 3p... 3p 4p 4p 4p 4p 0 ...> written out : double, double, double, double, empty hand 
BN : 633 siteswap : <3p 3p 2 2 3p ... 3p 5p 3 3 3p...> Written out : triple, self, self 
Try also 6451, 64514 (continuous) and all siteswaps that come to
mind.
BN : 64 Written out : double pass, double self 
BN : 663 Written out : double pass, double pass, self 
BN : 744 Written out : triple pass, self, self 
Causal Diagrams & Siteswaps  Top 
Author: JiBe
Credits: causal diagrams were invented by Martin Frost
<N1 N2 N3 N4  M1 M2 M3 M4> 
A passing siteswap consists of two sets of numbers (N for one side, M for the other) between brackets: '<...>' and separated by '  '.
Each of the sequences describes the throws of one juggler. By default,
these are integers, as in a solo siteswap (but you will see that this is not
always true). A throw that is a pass will be indicated by a p after the
number (ex.: 3p for a normal single self). When you get to the end of
the sequence, go back to the beginning as in solo siteswaps (instead of writing
"a b c a b c a b c a b c ..." we settle for "a b c").
If the sequence is especially long, it may be separated into 2 (or more) parts
in the following format:
<N1 N2  M1 M2>
<N3 N4  M3 M4>
When the two jugglers do exactly the same thing (at the same time or
staggered), the rhythm is called symmetrical (Christophe's "symmetrical
passing patterns"). Thus sometimes we only need
to write one sequence.
Ex.: 5p 3 3 3 instead of <5p 3 3 3  3 3 5p 3>
For those who know nothing about solo siteswaps, take a look at the recommended sites posted on the links page.
A twoperson causal diagram is made up of two lines. Each line represents one of the jugglers. On these lines are written the letters R and L, which represent the two hands of each juggler:
Next, we add arrows between the letters (hands), which represent a throw, whether a self (staying on the same line) or a pass (crossing lines).
Time progresses from left to right, from which it follows that the arrows point toward the right: first one throws and then one catches. That explains the alternation of L's and R's on each line; in a normal juggling pattern, one's hands throw one after the other.
For each circle (letter), there will be an arrow coming in and another arrow going out, i.e. one incoming pass and one outgoing pass (cf. the examples below; the first explanatory diagram don't show this because it is not a complete diagram). This illustrates the fact that one must throw a club in order to be able to receive another. The incoming club is the cause of the next throw.
The explanations given here follow (for now) the normal rules of siteswap, which state:
Beware however, contrary to the ladder diagrams, the arrows do not lead to the time when the same club will be thrown again. The arrow points at the moment when the club is caught (if it had been thrown there), combined with the moment when another club is thrown to take its place.
<3p ..... .....> 
A single pass (single spin) that goes straight across (R to L) 
<4p ..... .....> 
Double pass 
<5p ..... .....> 
Triple pass (it's easy to imagine what quadruple passes would look like...) 
<3 ..... .....> 
Normal single self. 
<4 ..... .....> 
A double (which then comes back to the hand that threw it). 
<5 ..... .....> 
A triple self (changing hands) 
<3p 2
..... 4p .....> 
Keep one club in hand (the arrow won't always be drawn). When no club arrives for a given hand, one may hold the club for another beat. That's a chance to do a flourish, thumb twirl... 
<3p 1
..... 3p .....> 
A handacross. The arrow goes backward (back in time)!!! That's because this handacross is the cause of the previous throw: you have to free the right hand for catching it. 
<3p 3p 3 0
 ..... > 
An empty hand (no need to throw). Again, the arrow goes back in time: in order for the hand to be empty, one must have made an earlier throw with the same hand. That's the cause that makes it possible to catch the incoming club. 
<3p 3 3 3  3p 3 3 3>
This is the most common pattern (every other). The jugglers pass at the same time and always with the right hand. There are 3 selfs between each pass.
<3p 3 3 3p 4 4p 1 3p 3 3 3p 3 3>
Waltz: jugglers pass at the same time and alternate between right and left hands.
Here one of the jugglers, upon receiving a pass does:  self double (4)  crossing double pass (4p)  handacross (1, the arrow pointing left)
<3p 3 3p 2 3p 3 3p 3 3p 3 4 4 5 3 0 3>
Here, the bottom juggler does the traditional rightlefttriple in 2count.
The first double, thrown at the same time as a regular
pass, arrives late (a double takes longer to get there
than a single). The top juggler therefore has a
pause (a 2) with his left hand (which otherwise would have
received a regular pass).
When someone throws a triple, there is no pass coming to the right hand, which will then be empty two counts later (at which point the arrow goes backward: a 0).
<4p 3  3 4p>
Here you will begin to grumble, and with good reason: why are 4's (doubles, all the passes) not made as crossing passes (R to R or L to L, as before)?
It's because the two jugglers are no longer doing exactly the same thing at the same time. The R's of the top juggler correspond to the bottom juggler's L's. There is a staggered start, which is not indicated by siteswap notation (on Joepass! you would enter it as "#jugglerStartLeft 2").
<4p 3  3 4p>
This is crossing 7 clubs in 2count
which follows the rules stated above. The jugglers throw with the same
hand at the same time, but one of them must make lefthanded passes.
You have seen in the previous examples that the two jugglers don't always throw with the same hand at the same time. According to the time delay between both their right (or left) hands, I categorize rhythms into three families (not counting hurries or 'galloped patterns').
Siteswap does not take staggered starts into account. Therefore, sometimes
there are several ways to juggle certain sequences (cf. <4p 3  3 4p>
in the examples above).
Be also aware that the new rules stated under are valid only for passes. Selfs
throws will always follow the usual rules.
This includes 4count, 3count,
2count, 1count
with 6 clubs, 4count or crossing
2count with 7 clubs...
In this family, the standard siteswap rules apply:
 even passes (4, 6... i.e. doubles, quadruples...) cross: R>R or
L>L
 odd passes (3, 5... i.e. singles, triples) go straight across: R>L
or L>R.
For example, 2count or compressed
mesopotamia with 7 clubs.
Note that the 1count delay means that when A throws with the RH, B throws with
the LH. In this family, the standard siteswap rules are reversed:
 even passes (4, 6... i.e. doubles, quadruples...) go straight across: R>L
or L>R
 odd passes (3, 5... i.e. singles, triples...) cross: R>R or L>L
These are essentially 7club patterns 3count,
ultimatebut also some with 6 clubswhynot?as
well as 8 and more.
In this family, the rules change completely; since the delay is no longer a
whole number, neither are the passes. The passes are now written as 3.5p,
4.5p, 5.5p...
In practice, you may choose to do either doubles or singles for 3.5p (which
is between 3 and 4  I know, you could've figured that out on your own).
A second new element is that in this case, one juggler makes all crossing passes, while the other makes all straight passes (without changing the numbers). Thus we have: If N (=3.5p for example) is a crossing pass for J1, it is straight for J2. And N+1 (4.5p in this case) is therefore a straight pass for J1.
A special siteswap notation may be applied to these patterns: 4handed
siteswaps.
I know that some people won't agree with this classification system.
However, if the diagrams are new for you, this may be less confusing.
FYI, some points to consider:
The total number of clubs equals:
(average of the numbers in the two sequences)*(number of jugglers).
For
example, for <3p 4 4 1  3p 3 3 3 > :
average = (3+4+4+1+3+3+3+3)/8 = 3 (24/8)
and the number of clubs
= 6 (3*2, i.e. 3 clubs per juggler).
One could also calculate the number of clubs juggled by each juggler (with his corresponding sequence) as in normal siteswaps. When doing this, one often ends up with numbers like 3.5 clubs per juggler (for regular 7 clubs).
In order to calculate the number of clubs in a causal diagram, we must first find (and define this notion) the number of causal lines present in the diagram. In the example below, the three causal lines are clearly shown (one blue, one green, one red). This should be enough to understand the concept of causal lines. One may also make a vertical line and count the number of arrows that it crosses, but in this case arrows that go from right to left (handacross and empty hand) should be counted as negative.
So we have: number of clubs = ( number of lines ) + ( total number of
hands).
In the case of 2person passing patterns, there are 4 hands.
Here: number of clubs = 3 + 4 = 7 (it's a popcorn with 7 clubs).
In short, the lines represent the number of objects in the air at a given time, as opposed to those which jugglers hold in their hands (which is how we get the formula).
A hurry is often defined as throwing twice in a row with the same hand. This often happens because someone catches the club in the "wrong" hand.
Here I've shown the hurries in green, breaking the alternation of RLRLRL... by sometimes having 2 R or 2 L in a row.
Here I've tried to represent a duplex in a 2count pattern (6 clubs). The bottom juggler catches two clubs in his right hand and throws them back two counts later.
The diagram's ambiguity comes from the fact that one line (the red one) is broken. We should agree on a way of dealing with this, perhaps by introducing a new arrow (like the dotted one) in the diagrams.
If desired, one may add an extra line to show self patterns which necessitate, for example (as is the case here for columns) synchronous throws. Note that the line (red loop) thus created does not intervene in the calculation of the number of clubs in the pattern (we have simply created a problem for ourselfs by throwing a club even though nothing forced us to do so).
Note: Most jugglers do this pattern by throwing synchronous doubles, handacross, pass (not synchronous doubles, handacross, self, pass). When making a clear diagram, you can see that theoretically that triples should be thrown, but by taking some liberties in throw height, it still works with doubles.
A kickup is the action of picking up and "throwing" (in a self or a pass) a club with one's foot. A circle with an F (for Foot) suffices for this type of diagram. In this case, you create a new line since you add another club to the pattern.
Thus you can play with the diagrams, doing what you want with them. Feel free to take some initiative!
Adding jugglers is simple, both for the diagrams and for siteswaps. In the diagrams, all you have to do is add a line for each new juggler.
For siteswap, you add a sequence of numbers for each juggler (still using a '' (pipe) to separate each juggler). On the other hand, you must identify which juggler should receive which passes, so we write 3p1 to note a pass thrown to juggler number 1 (The jugglers need to be numbered first).
<3 3 3p2 3  3p3 3 3p1 3 3p2 3 3 3>
<3p2 3 5p3 2 2 3 ... 3p3 3 3 4p1 2 3 ... 3p1 3
3 3 3p2 3 ...>
How to avoid collisions  Top 
Author: JiBe
This type of collision is the most common and can happen in any pattern when both jugglers throw a crossing double at the same time. To avoid them, you have to agree once and for all that crossing doubles will be thrown from the inside (close to the navel), whatever the pattern.  
With collision 
Without collision 
To avoid this, you have to agree that the person who throws with the right hand (R to R) will throw their pass from the outside (from as far right as possible) and the one who throws lefthanded passes will throw from the inside (from the centre). The diagrams on the left will give you an idea. An example of a such a pattern is Brendan's Folly.  
With collision

Without collision

This type of problem is rather difficult to resolve and is only relevant to certain barbaric patterns (e.g. compressed Mesopotamia). In theory, one must create imaginary corridors, the two jugglers slightly offset from one another (see diagrams); in practice, it's still hard to do!  
With collision

Without collision

Introduction to hurrys  Top 
Author: JiBe
Reminder:
The context is that of patterns that can be put into classic siteswap
notation, in which one's hands throw one after the other.
Hurry: definitionA hurry comes about when a club (or ball) is thrown one count sooner than normal. 
All that was to give you an idea of the principle; to be able to go on to discover
your own passing patterns.
In passing, to create a hurry (we will later see how to get out of them using
various passes), one throws a crossing pass which otherwise should have been
straight pass (or vice versa).
Let's take a classic 4count, for example:
Classic 4count: 

With a hurry on the last pass: < 3px 3 3 3  3p 3* 3 3 > 
The bottom juggler makes their last pass a crossing single (in blue, R to R). The hurry (in red) comes from the fact that the top juggler makes a pass with their right hand at the same time. They must free their right hand right afterward in order to receive the crossing pass. It's easy to see that the alternation between Right and Left (RLRLRL) is brokenwe have RLRL RR LRLR.
Thus we can create new patterns based upon most classic patterns; all that needs to happen is for one juggler to cross all his passes that he previously threw straight across. The two jugglers can then continue on with the same rhythm. In the example above, the top juggler starts a 4count lefthanded cycle after the hurry.
Continuous 4count with a hurry: <3px 3 3 3 3px 3* 3 3  3p 3* 3 3 3p 3
3 3>
Thus we get a pattern with one juggler who crosses all their passes (in blue).
The two jugglers alternate 2 cycles of lefthanded 4count and then 2 cycles
of righthanded 4count. The hurry (in red) switches from one juggler
to the other.
3count with a hurry (Jim's 3count): <3px 3 3 3px 3* 3  3p 3* 3 3p 3 3 >
So that's how we get new patterns! Consult the hurry section on the rhythms
page to see more.
See also Martin's Madness, which uses
a handacross to alter the basic pattern.
This is only a modest introduction. Those who would like more indepth explanations of hurries (definition, mathematical aspect, etc.) can look at Christophe's article on the subject. For applications, see also the following pages: self hurries, pass hurries.
Hurried passes in passing  Top 
Author: JiBe
Different, new patterns can be deduced from this (depending on how I react) if my partner keeps on making their passes this way (always crossing instead of the usual staight).
I've identified 3 ways to react. I wanted to make diagrams for other patterns than the 4count, but I think you'll get it anyway.
React as in Jim's 3count (this is the easiest way)
You keep on juggling a 4count, whatever hand the club arrives in. I sometimes call it the "nozips" version.
<(,3p)(,3)(3,)(,3) (3p,)(,3)(3,)(,3)%  (,3px)(3,)(,3)(3,)
(,3px)(,3)(3,)(,3) %>
Pretty hard. You keep juggling a right handed 4count. A short zip allows you to throw as if the club had arrived in the right hand.
<(,3p)(3,0x)(,3)(3,)  (,3px)(3,)(,3)(3,)>
As in Mild Madness
There is a zip as previously, but this one is easier since you allow yourself to throw twice from the same hand (using a straight self single in the case of a 4count).
<(,3px)(3,)(,3)(3,) (,3px)(3x,2x)(3,)(,3) %  (,3p)(3x,2x)(3,)(,3)
(3p,)(,3)(3,)(,3)%>
Hurried selfs in passing  Top 
Author: JiBe
I deal with passes here. This page deals with the selfs and we will assume that we're using a rhythm which is not a 1count.
Let's take any passing rhythm and see what we can do with the selfs:
Theory for popcorns patterns  Top 
Author: JiBe
Credits: based on Christophe Pr?chac ideas
7 club popcorn (a definition): a passing pattern in which one juggler lifts 4 clubs, leaving the other one juggling 3 clubs, before he throws back a club and reverse the situation. Similarly, you can define some 8 and 9 club popcorns.
Thanks to Christophe (this pages owes a lot to Christophe and to Hans Gault who discovered these patterns), I understood what were the mathematics (siteswap formulas) behind all these patterns.
You can find some other kind of popcorns (with more than one pass per cycle for instance), but I won't describe them here.
s s s ... (n times) = {s}n.
Example : {4}3 = 4 4 4
Then it's very short, we simply have the following popcorn families:
2ncount popcorn:

(2n+1)count popcorn

and you can carry on: 
and you can carry on: 
You see very well from these formulas there is a 4 clubs part, a pass, and a 3 clubs part.
Remark: All these pattern are symetric, meaning that both jugglers do the same thing (but staggered). We thus only write the sequence of one juggler.
When you replace n by some reasonable values, you get quite a few patterns. What is also amazing is to discover here some classical patterns such as the 2count or the 1count.
In 2ncount popcorns, the passes are tramline and always made by the same hand.
In (2n+1)count popcorns, one juggler does crossing passes, the other does straight
passes. Juggler 2 starts half a beat after juggler 1, and passes are made from
both hands.
Note also that all sequences of 4's can be replaced by an equivalent 4 club siteswap (44 can be replaced by 53, 4444 by 5551, ...). You can do that at any time without warning your partner since it's not going to change anything on their side of the pattern. The same applies to the 3's (333 replaced by 441 or 531).
I've added some stars to indicate the very good ones.
2ncount popcorn

(2n+1)count popcorn


{4}n 3p {3}n1

{4}n1 4p {3}n

{4}n 3.5p {3}n

{4}n1 4.5p {3}n+1


n=0





3.5p 


n=1

4 3p 
4 3.5p 3 3count popcorn *** 
4.5p 3 3 

n=2

4 4 3p 3 
4 4p 3 3

4 4 3.5p 3 3 5count popcorn *** 
4 4.5p 3 3 3 
n=3

4 4 4 3p 3 3

4 4 4p 3 3 3 classic popcorn when done with 53. 
4 4 4 3.5p 3 3 3

4 4 4.5p 3 3 3 3 
n=4

4 4 4 4 3p 3 3 3 
4 4 4 4p 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 3.5p 3 3 3 3 
4 4 4 4.5p 3 3 3 3 3

4 hands Siteswaps  Top 
Author: JiBe
This notation is used in certain specific cases:
Since J1 and J2 don't throw at the same time, one might think of it as nothing more than a single imaginary juggler with 4 hands throwing the clubs one after another in the following order: RHJ1 (J1's right hand), RHJ2, LHJ1, LHJ2.
Thus we can assign numbers to each throw as we did in normal siteswap and obtain the following table showing the correspondence between the two:
4handed siteswap

Description

Normal siteswap equivalent

0

empty hand

0

1

impossible

0.5p

2

handacross

1

3

impossible

1.5p

4

pause 
2

5

almost impossiblevery
fast pass

2.5p

6

normal self

3

7

lofty single pass

3.5p

8

double self (straight across)

4

9

lofty double pass

4.5p

10

triple self (crossing)

5

11

lofty triple pass

5.5p

When faced with a 4handed siteswap, first we have to know to whom the sequence appliesthe 4handed juggler, J1, J2?
Normally, there's a sequence for the virtual juggler: S1 S2 S
3 S4 S5
...
and it is specified: where J1 does S1
S 3 S5
... and J2 does S2 S4
...
You can draw a table to associate each number with the hands of each juggler if you still need to convince yourself:
S1

S2

S 3

S4

S5

...

RHJ1

RHJ2

LHJ1

LHJ2

RHJ1

...

The pattern is 966 in which J1 and J2 do 966 (lofty double pass, self, self).
The 4handed siteswap is 9 6 6 7 7 9 6 6 7 7 ...
J1 does 96767, J2 does 67967 (identical to 96767).
The pattern is 96677 in which J1 and J2 do 96767 (lofty double pass, self, lofty single pass, self, lofty single pass).
The 4handed siteswap is 9 6 2 9 6 6 9 6 6 9 9 6
9 9 2 9
... J1 does 92696992, J2 does 69669699.
The pattern is 9629669669969929 in which J1 does 92696992 and J2 do 69669699. Don't feel obligated to try it, it's just to have an example where J1 and J2 don't do the same thing (this is because the length of the sequence is an even number).
Introduction to slowfasts  Top 
Author: JiBe
The theory behind this is not very complicated at first glance. A slowfast pattern (for 2 jugglers) is actually a pattern in which each juggler has to juggle at a faster pace than the other. For example: if J1 makes 3 selfs between each pass (4count), J2 would make only 2 selfs (3count) or 1 (2count).
The 2 jugglers then have to agree on a few necessary modifications. Since J2 is doing a 3count, J1 will have to throw the passes to the left then to the right alternatively whatever their rhythm (ambidextrous or not). Thus, sometimes they will have to cross their passes (and sometimes not).
There is a slow side and a fast side to this pattern. Usually people say that
the slow side is the side where the juggling is slower.
For example: if J1 makes a 4count and J2 a 2count then J1 has the fast side
and J2 the slow side.
If you would like to pursue this further, don't miss Johannes Waldmann article
in issue number 61 of Kaskade: Hobo Zwiefacher
You can also have a look at a few examples (which are not all that easy):
technofeeds, Alan's
Anguish and the feed 3count/ultimate.
Introduction to feeds  Top 
Author: JiBe
When doing a "feed", there is somebody (the feeder) who's passing to 2 other jugglers (the feedees), facing them at the same time. F passes to F1 and F2 in a pattern which has to be defined. F1 and F2 only pass to F. F1 and F2 usually juggle the same pattern, but staggered since we assume that F is not going to catch 2 clubs at the same time (this assumption is broken with synchronous patterns). 
As a consequence, F passes twice as often as F1 or F2, since they have to throw as many passes as the F1 and F2 together. If F does an ncount, F1 and F2 do a 2ncount (no matter how many clubs there are). We're assuming here that F1 and F2 are doing the same pattern.
Example: 

In the most classical feed, the feeder
F is doing a 2count alternating between the 2 feedess, who do a 4count.
While a pass is made between F and F1, F2 is doing a right hand self. The causal diagram (for 9 clubs) shows that very well, F being the middle line. 
If you can't read this, check the page about "causal diagrams". 
Once the feeder's rhythm is known, it is easy to find what rhythm the feedees are doing (slowfasts not allowed here).
the feeder  the feedees 

1count  2count 
2count  4count 
PPS  3count 
3count  6count 
mild madness  Jim's 3count 
PPSS (chocolate bar)  4count 
...  ... 
Now you can go back to the feed section to try out a few patterns.
Feeds  From Feeder to Feedee  Top 
Author: JiBe
Credits: Kaskade 64
We carry on with "just the three of us" (see previous articles),
but this time we will get more interested on moving and swapping places than
on rhythms. The basic pattern is a normal feed, with the feeder in a 2count
(but tips will be given for a 3count or PPS feeder).
Keep also in mind that if most of the patterns can (and should) be done continuously,
it is good practise to learn step by step and to make breaks (no, keep juggling,
break here just means you don't move anymore) after each change of feeder/feedee.
About the drawings :
Most patterns are illustrated with drawings featuring three jugglers called
A, B and C, seen from the sky. There is a nose for the direction which they
should be looking at (normally the direction where the passes come from).
Plain arrows indicate passes, and you should be able to distinguish between
left and right passes. Dotted arrows indicate movement.
The drawings are made only when a pass happen (every 2counts for a 2count).
At the moment of receiving (and sending) a pass, a feedee,
for instance B, can decide to leave the pattern (Out). He just has to make
it clear for the others jugglers, by either saying it or moving out of the
pattern. The two remaining jugglers carry on with a 4count (2count is
also possible), the other feedee changes nothing and the feeder does now
righthand selfs instead of passes to B. Now B can come back (In) at four different places (see fig.), including his previous position. At that moment, a feed can resume. The new feeder, by making it obvious to B (either by looking at him or making an obvious pass gesture or both) will start passing to B instead of doing right hand selfs. B has to react by starting passing to him at the same moment. 
If you want to go from one position to another in the shorter possible time,
you are doing "Quick Outs & Ins". The sequence goes like this
if you go next to the current feeder: (1) throw your last pass from your position,
(2) start moving while placing the club in your left hand in the right (where
there is 2 clubs now), (3) catch the incoming pass from the feeder while moving
to your new position, (4) turn quickly while the two other jugglers pass, (5)
pass to the new feeder while doing a last backward step, this first pass in
your new position happens 4 counts after the last one.
Only steps (1) and (5) are pass beats (for the moving juggler). You can also
keep juggling while doing it but it's more difficult as you have to quickly
turn while juggling.
You can try "Quick Outs & Ins" to go the 3 available positions
you see in the drawing, going through the passing being the more challenging
one. Try also moving to another place after each pass.
If you want to do the same thing with the feeder in PPS, just bear in mind
the following points (assuming that if you are B, you move toward position 1,
if you are C, you move to position 2) :
If you are the left feedee (from the feeder's point of vue) and you leave with
a right pass, you come back on the other side with a right pass 4 counts after
(same with left).
If you are the right feedee, and you leave with a right pass, you come back
with a left pass 5 counts later (but you could also agree to come back 3 counts
later).
If the juggler on your right starts moving, you become the new feeder by doing
(just after his pass) : pass (old feeder), self, self (do a pass instead if
you agreed on 3 counts), pass (old feeder), pass (moved juggler, 5th count).
If the juggler on your right starts moving, you do : self, pass (old feeder),
self, pass (moved juggler, 4th count).
If you're the old feeder, you carry on with a 3counts with the unmoved juggler,
making selfs instead of passes to the moved one.
Here, you just have the two feedees swapping places. The feeder does not move
at all, he just has to follow what's going on so that he can adjust his passes.
How B moves first is important because it will be of use in all the following
patterns (this one being the easiest). B, at the moment of throwing a pass,
decides to move so that he already has made a small step to the front when the
corresponding pass comes to him (Fig.1). He then keeps on moving to the left
and to the front so that he is ready to step in front of C (and to pass, Fig.3)
just after A and C next passes (Fig.2), which should be just on his left side.
As B moves now to the back, he frees place for A and C passes (Fig.5).
While B moves to the left as described, A should also move slightly to the right
to ease B's task.
That's it, B and A have changed places, A is now ready to do the same thing
(Fig. 5&6). If you do so continuously, it just looks like B and A are turning
around each other.
In this pattern, and in the following ones, the principle is the same : you should consider a giant, using three human jugglers as props, and juggling a 3 ball cascade with them. The path followed by the jugglers is a figure of 8.
If we describe one movement, we will see how B (Fig. 1) can go through the
passing to come next to C, without stopping juggling and passing.
If you look closely, the first 3 steps are exactly the same than in the tornado.
But after that, instead of moving back (next to A), B will now come next to
C. He will keep moving to the left, but will also start turning so that he can
do a last pass to C (Fig. 5), and will be ready for the next pass to A (after
Fig. 6). It's now C's turn to go to the other side (Fig. 6).
The pattern has a 30pass cycle. You should also be aware that going from rightfeedee
to rightfeedee (B's described movement) doesn't feel exactly the same than
going from left to left (C's following movement).
This version of Bruno's nightmare (with the feeder in a 2count) is the easiest to learn and is the original one (invented by Bruno Saxer and corrected by Martin Frost). Now if you find this one too slow, you can try faster variations by shortening the number of passes made by each feeder (the following turbo is one of the very fast variations) or changing the rhythm (a 3count variation is described later but you can try PPS or ultimate).
In this nightmare, the feeder does a 3count, one feedee a right handed 6count
and the other a left handed 6count. What makes it difficult is more the changes
between rhythms than the movement itself.
As the 3count is slower than the previous 2count, we use here fewer passes
for one change of feeder. The feeder will do only 3 passes (C in Fig.1, 2, 3)
before he becomes a feedee (C in Fig. 4). What happens is when B (as a feedee)
tries to change side, he will only make two passes to C before starting passing
to A (new feeder).
There is nothing really new if the previous version is understood. What could
be clarified is the change of rhythm. For every juggler (if done continuously),
it goes like this :
3count (3 passes)
righthanded 6count (3 passes)
3count (3 passes)
lefthanded 3count (3 passes)
Turbo follows the principle of Bruno's nightmare, but with a much shorter cycle
(the shorter you can find with a 2count).
If you carefully look at B, he has already turned 180° by the time he makes
his second pass which is a pass to A (and not C as previously). Having said
that, the drawings should be selfexplanatory.
In this pattern, there is not much time left to think about what to do, just
do it.
For all these patterns, each juggler should pay attention to where the juggler he passes to is moving. Therefore, he can do his passes so that when the juggler has moved, the pass is not too far from him nor aimed at his face.
Hobo Zwiefacher  Top 
Author: Johannes Waldmann
Credits: Kaskade 61
You know the polka, you know the waltz  now it's time to learn the Zwiefacher. The Zwiefacher is a dance in which threefour time alternates with fourfour. Let's just listen in to what Erlenmeyer and Keulenheier have to say on the subject…
Erlenmeyer: Wanna pass?
Keulenheier: Sure thing. Which pattern?
Erlenmeyer: Let's start with ordinary passing.
Keulenheier: You mean the waltz!
(Editor's Note: The waltz is the basic 3count pattern  selfselfpass. See
part 2 of the passing workshop series in Kaskade 57.)
Erlenmeyer: Well actually I'd rather just do righthanded passing.
Keulenheier: Shame on you! But I've got just the pattern for us: you can do
your boring old 4count and I can do the waltz.
Erlenmeyer: At the same time? But then three of your throws have to take the
same amount of time as my four, otherwise the passes would arrive at the wrong
time.
Keulenheier (KH): Exactly. And your passes have to alternate between straight
and across because I'm passing left and right, so I expect your passes to come
in left and right too.
Erlenmeyer (EM): But you always pass to my left hand, even though your rhythm
is the waltz. So you also throw alternately straight and across, straight with
the right and across with the left. (See fig. 1)
Grafik 1: slow fast 34.ps
EM: OK, you've had your rest now. It's my turn to do the slow side of the pattern.
KH: But I want to carry on doing my waltz!
EM: And I want to carry on catching left and passing right... Hey, it IS possible!
You carry on doing your waltz, but now I'm going to switch to a 2count: every
righthand throw is a pass, every left throw is a self. Otherwise it's the same
as before  I alternate between straight passes and cross passes to you. Great,
now I can relax. (Fig. 2)
Grafik 2: slow fast 23.ps
KH: OK, I've had enough of that! From now on I'm doing a 1count. Every throw
is a pass. You carry on with your 2count if you want.
EM: But then I have to juggle twice as fast, you lazy sod! (Fig. 3)
Grafik 3: slow fast 12.pass
EM: Phew, this is getting a bit strenuous. Let's go back to 3 and 4count.
Let me try your side of the pattern for a change.
KH: Go ahead. But just to make it interesting, lets swap roles after every pass:
On the first beat you do the waltz and I do the 4count, then on the next beat
you do the 4count and I do the waltz.
EM: That sounds reasonable. So where should I throw to? Before, when I was doing
the 4count, I had to keep changing my target, throwing straight to the left
hand, then across to the right…
KH: …and I always had to aim at your left shoulder while I was doing the
waltz. That was alternating straight and across too, because I was constantly
switching my passing hand.
EM: So now it goes like this: I do (straight pass, self, self, cross pass, self,
self, self)…
KH: …and I do (straight pass, self, self, self, cross pass, self, self)
(Fig. 4)
Grafik 4: slow fast fast slow 34.ps
EM: This is getting complicated. I pass with the right hand, the left hand,
across and straight  everything combined with everything else.
KH: Yes, and the change of pace each time also makes it very  er  instructive,
don't you agree?
EM: You're not kidding. "Instructive", eh? I suppose that's one way
of putting it. What you really mean is that we aren't going to be able to keep
it up for very long.
KH: Hmm. Let's cheat a bit. The main thing is to make sure that the pass after
the waltz doesn't arrive too early, otherwise the one who's doing the 4count
has to hurry too much.
EM: Exactly! So why don't we throw the pass after the waltz as a double so that
it stays in the air for longer.
KH: That's just what I was thinking. But then the thrower of the doublespin
pass has to insert a short pause, otherwise he'll find himself waiting for a
pass that doesn't come.
EM: So let's recap. I have to go: (straight pass, self, self, double cross pass,
wait, self, self, self)…
KH: …and I have to go: (wait, self, self, self, cross pass, self, self,
double straight pass).
EM: OK, that might even work. But how do we start?
KH: Let's think. Your last throw on the first beat is a double cross pass.
EM: That looks exactly the same as an early double in the normal 4count.
KH: Right, so let's both start with a 4count, and at some point you can throw
an early double, to which I respond by throwing a single cross pass. (Fig. 5)
Grafik 5: 3443
KH: So this pattern not only includes both right and left passes that go either
straight or across; it also includes singles and doubles. That's why my mates
call it the "Leipzig Allsorts", after a special kind of vegetable
stew that's supposed to be popular in our home town.
EM: I say, have you noticed that we always throw the double pass with the same
club. It's always up high  from me across to you, from you straight to me,
then from me across again to your other hand, then from you straight back to
me.
KH: That's why you could look at this pattern as a preliminary exercise on the
way to doing the waltz with seven clubs. In the 7club waltz, three of the clubs
are doing precisely that.
EM: Seven minus three ... so where are the other four, then?
KH: Two stay with me as selfs, and the two others stay with you. (Fig. 6)
Grafik 6: walz7.ps
EM: But let's get back to 6 clubs. We were doing waltz versus 2count a while
ago.
KH: You can also turn that into an Allsortstype pattern. You go: (straight
pass, self, double cross pass, wait, self, self) and I go (wait, self, self,
cross pass, self, double straight pass) (Fig. 7)
Grafik 7: allerlei 2332.ps
KH: Now we're both doing the low pass always with the same club.
EM: Wait a minute, here in the causal diagram the arrows are pointing in different
directions!
KH: But the arrows are not the paths of the clubs. If you draw those, you get
a ladder diagram.
EM: So why don't we do that?
KH: Because there aren't so many arrows in the causal diagram, and it's easier
to interpret them.
EM: I bet a Onecount/Twocount Allsorts is also possible.
KH: Of course. You do (straight pass, double cross pass, wait, self) and I do
(wait, self, cross pass, double straight pass)
EM: And we can start into that like we did before, with an early double pass
out of a simple 2count. (Fig. 8)
Grafik 8: allerlei 1221.ps
KH: That's pretty heavy stuff!
EM: Now that I look at it, this is a PassPassSelf.
KH: Which is why it can also be used as a way of practising for the 7club PPS.
(Fig. 9)
Grafik 9: pps7.ps
EM: Oh look, here comes old Stürenburg from the National Convention Date
Coordination Authority. I bet he'd like to hear about our new patterns after
a hard day's work.
KH: Not only that, he'd probably like to try them out.
Stürenburg: Good day, gentlemen. Yes indeed, I could do with a bit of a
waltz right now...
KH: ... and you'd probably like me to do a 4count. All right. But it would
be a shame if Mr. Erlenmeyer had to stand around doing nothing. Perhaps I could
have you both doing the same pattern.
EM: Good grief, but that means that you'd be feeding, so you'd have to do a
2count instead of a 4count.
KH: Quite right. I pass first to Mr Erlenmeyer's right shoulder, then to Stürenburg's
right, then Erlenmeyer's left, then Stürenburg's left.
Stürenburg: Whereas we always waltzpass to your left shoulder.
KH: Could I ask you both to keep the pace fairly slow  otherwise it'll be hard
for me to juggle fast enough. (Fig. 10)
Grafik 10: slow fast feed 323.ps
Stürenburg: I think you've earned a rest, Mr Keulenheier. We should swap
sides now.
EM: Not sides, but numbers! If we both do 4count and Mr Keulenheier does a
3count…
KH: Well, it is possible. But instead of doing a proper waltz, like you were
doing just now, I think I'd rather do a PassPassSelf. If you would be so kind,
would you please aim your 4count passes alternately to my left and right shoulders.
(Fig. 11)
Grafik 11: slow fast 4pps4.ps
EM: That was fun. But it's time for bed now. Before we next get together, perhaps
you could try and think of a way to do a threeperson Leipzig Allsorts.
Stürenburg (exits, mumbling to himself): I must try that out at the business
lunch tomorrow with the ladies and gentlemen of the PassingPatternNamingandAdministration
Authority…
The unsquare dance  Funky 7 club patterns  Top 
Author: Jon SkjerningRasmussen
Credits: Kaskade 65
If you are reading this article you probably know the feeling: time slows down,
the outside world has finally lost all its importance, you are thinking about
nothing in particular, yet your mind is not wandering, there is simply no necessity
for you to use your imagination or your capacity for abstract thought  all
that matters is that you are alive  Alive and Passing. Magically every throw
is perfect  every catch requires absolutely no effort, two (or more) minds
are tuning in to the same frequency. And then comes the moment that is the beginning
of the end: you become conscious of what is happening, a small river of chills
(and adrenaline) is running up your spine  and 'Bang' it all falls apart and
you both let out a small 'yeehaa' or a 'wow'.
The three articles in this series are about some of the weird and wonderful
patterns that I and other nerds have come up with during moments of great inspiration.
Hopefully they will bring you as much enjoyment as they have brought me.
Before I get started with the patterns I would like to thank Wolfgang for inventing
the marvellous tool: JoePass!, without which several of the patterns here wouldn't
have been invented yet (by me at least). I will also advertise the usefulness
of 'causal diagrams'. Knowing how to use them can be a major factor in enhancing
the output of one's sessions of creative inspiration.
In these articles I take as my basic presumption that the reader has at least
some knowledge of causal diagrams. For the ones who want to groove on these
patterns in actual 3dimensional space, however, I find it essential to be able
to juggle the pattern that I find to be the doorway these types of patterns:
the 7club 3count. So I start with explaining that pattern. But enough talk.
Let's get to the patterns.
I have divided the funky 7club patterns into different categories (not something
I have given a lot of thought to so it mightn't be the most efficient way):
7club 3count (if you can call one pattern a category  maybe 7club 1count
should also go in this category, see kaskade 57).
PassPassSelfs (pps)
Bookends (ppsps  or pspsp if you like)
Countdowns
Popcorns
Other Patterns (whatever doesn't fit into the other categories, so far I have
at least one pattern here)
This first article deals with the three first categories, but fear not, the
other categories will be carefully dealt with in the following issues. And,
by the way, sometimes I have added a few 3 people feed patterns derived from
the 7club pattern, but hey…
To start a pattern, simply follow the causal diagram, beginning at its left side. Every juggler holds one club in every hand, plus one club for every arrow that reaches the hand from the left side of the pattern. In the first pattern, J2 will start with 4 clubs, and J1 has 3 clubs.
This is, as I said, the basic ambidextrous 7club pattern. I always warm up
with this one before moving on to other patterns.
If you have done no ambidextrous juggling before, learn the 6club 3count (pss),
and do that until you have the throwing rhythm totally automatic. Practice throwing
'late doubles' in this patterns (i.e., a crossing double pass on the pass beat).
This trick is likely to make your partner fuck up the pattern as she gets a
'hold', and thus won't be passing back the same club as she receives (which
is what you normally do in a 6club 3count). To avoid this, count out loud:
"right, two, three, left, two, three, right, …". When you both
can throw continuous 'late doubles' you are definitely ready to do try the 7club
version.
In this pattern you are both throwing double passes. However one of you, 'juggler
1' (J1), will be crossing your passes while the other, 'juggler 2' (J2), goes
straight. The passes will also need to be slightly floatier than normal doubles
(for mathematical and practical reason). J2 (the one that passes straight) starts
with 4 clubs doing: floaty straight double pass, self, self, … J1 waits
1 1/2 beats (or 'as long as possible') before starting, doing: floaty crossing
pass, self, self, … (or he can wait only half a beat and starts with a
left self).
Pat. 1:
The four handed siteswap for this one is 966 (if you don't understand why and
can't wait another page, see footnote 2).
If you have problems with the rhythm you can 'colour code' the pattern. To do
that, take 3 clubs of a different colour, and hold them so that they will be
the passes. J1 has one coloured club and holds it as the first one in the right
hand. J2 (the one who starts) holds one coloured club in the right had as the
first one and one coloured club as the second one in the left hand. This way
you will always be passing the coloured clubs, while the 'normal' clubs always
are selfs.
All the tricks that can be thrown in a 6club 3count can also be thrown in
the 7club version, only they have to have one more spin  doubles become triples,
triples become quads, etc. J1 will have to make her triples straight and his
quads crossing, while J2 will do the opposite. Keep in mind that all the passes
have to be done floaty here.
If you just want some great patterns to groove on, move straight on and leave
the tricks till you are juggling with someone not as nerdy (or zen) as you.
A great passing rhythm whose basic pattern is pretty well known among ambidextrous passers. However, also another variation exists. The result is at least as spine tingling.
J1 does crossing doubles and J2 does a straight single followed by a crossing
double. J2 starts with 4 clubs, and both jugglers start simultaneously:
Pat. 2:
This pattern can also be done with reversing the passes so that the double passes are straight, and the single is crossing  a nice variation that feels quite different. To do this one juggler starts with the left hand. (Just imagine that all the 'R's are 'L's and vice versa in J2's line in the causal diagram).
Here is a pps where J1 does everything on singles. J2 does all doubles (also
the selfs, which makes this side it a bit harder and groovier to juggle). J1
has 4 clubs.
Pat. 3:
Also here can it be interesting to reverse the passes so the singles are crossing
and the doubles are straight (the self double stays straight!).
As pps has twice as many passes as 3count (pss) it is the perfect pattern for feeding two 3counts. There are probably heaps of ways to do this. Here are two, one with 11 clubs and a funkier one with only 10.
This one is fairly simple, as all the passes are floaty doubles. The 'feeder'
(FF) has 5 clubs and throws inside, inside, self, outside, outside, self. 'feedee
1' (F1) stands on the right side of 'feedee 2' (F2) and starts 1 1/2 beats after
FF (when FF's first right pass is arriving), doing the crossing side of a 7club
3count starting with the right hand. F2 does the same, but waits 2 1/2 beats
after FF and starts from the left hand.
Pat 4:
In this pattern everybody starts at the same time from the right. F1 stands
to the right of F2. FF has 4 clubs and does: crossing double to F1, straight
single to F2, self, cross doub (F2), straight single (F1), self. All the feedees'
passes are straight and both start with a self before doing their 3count sequences.
F1 does: left single pass, self, self, right trip pass, self, self. F2 does:
left trip pass, self, self, right single pass, self, self.
Pat. 5:
But let's now go back to 2 people and 7 clubs…
Now we get into 7club versions of the 'old' 6club pattern 'bookends', a 5count with 3 passes and 2 selfs. The selfs always have min. one pass in between (got that?) . (see footnote 1).
The basic pattern in this section is another great fusion of technology, creative
inspiration and skill (thanx for your patience, Mandy), but it isn't actually
that hard, you just add another pass and another self to the basic pps. J2 starts
with 4 clubs.
Pat. 6:
Don't forget to try both ends and to reverse the passes like in the other patterns.
Here is a version where both jugglers do (almost) the same. J1 does floaty
crossing singles and straight floaty doubles and J2 does the opposite  is that
clear?!?. J2 has 4 clubs, and J1 starts immediately (half a beat) after.
Pat. 7:
As this pattern is asynchronous (none of the four hands throw at the same time) it can be written down as a fourhanded siteswap: 96677 (see footnote 2). Each juggler throws 96767.
For an even weirder bookends (as if it needs to get any weirder!) try 86777,
where each juggler juggles 87767 in turn. J1 has 4 clubs, and J2 starts half
a beat later.
Pat. 8:
For a 'reverse' bookends (sspsp) try this one  it even has a triple in it
 oooohhh. J1 starts with 4 clubs (at the same time as J2).
Pat. 9:
This one cannot be written in a fourhanded site swap as it is a synchronous
pattern, which also means that the passes don't need to be floaty, and that
you can try making the crossing passes straight and vice versa.
"And I'm spent…"
1. There are (at least) two different ways to think about bookends patterns.
One is to just do ppsps, the other is to pspsp (i.e., three right hand shower
passes in a row followed immediately  no self in between!  by three left hand
passes). Try to do the same pattern with both "feelings"  it doesn't
feel like the same pattern even though your body is doing exactly the same (trippy,
huh). I also discovered that this pattern is exactly the same as one that Wolfgang
describes in Kaskade 57 as
<4p 3 4p 3 3p3 4p 3 4p 4p>, but never mind…
2. Brief explanation of fourhanded siteswap
 6s are normal selfs (the same as 3 in "normal" siteswap)
 7s are floaty single passes (or 3.5s)
 8s normal self doubles (to the same hand  like normal 4s)
 9s are floaty double passes (4.5s)
 10s are crossing self triples (5) (please note that 10 can easily be confused
with a 1 followed by a 0, however 1s almost never appear in fourhanded siteswap,
so a 10, 11, 12, etc are always to be read as ten, eleven, twelve, etc. in this
type of siteswap here, unless otherwise specified)
 11s are floaty triple passes (5.5)
So all even numbers are selfs while odds are passes  a 5 would be a very fast
pass, a 4 is a hold, a 2 is a zip and a 0 is an empty hand. I don't think I
believe in 1s and 3s, definitely not with clubs.
Important about the passes (but not about the selfs): if "juggler 1"
does 7s, and 11s straight and 9s crossing, then "juggler 2" will have
to do her 7s and 11s crossing and the 9s straight.
Take Seven ? more funky sevenclub patterns  Top 
Author: Jon SkjerningRasmussen
Credits: Kaskade 66
This is the second article in a series of (at least three) articles on wild
7club passing. All the patterns are ambidextrous so if you are not used to
passing 7 clubs using both hands I advise you to learn some of the patterns
described in the last issue of Kaskade (65), where I went into '7club three
count', different versions of 'pass, pass, selfs', a few 'bookends' (or ppsps)
and a couple of 3person feeds based on some of the patterns.
This time the focus is on one of the branches of wild 7club patterns we didn't
get a chance to look into last time namely 'Countdowns'. And there is also a
'bonus pattern' that doesn't seem to be closely related to the other patterns,
but that just makes it even more interesting.
This is a branch of passing that has existed for a while in 6club passing, but hasn't (as far as I'm concerned) been introduced into the vast world of 7club passing. But fear not! Here it comes. There is at least one Really Nice Pattern in this category  invented by Trevor Lewis and me here in my back yard in Copenhagen  hence the name.
This pattern is a countdown from 3  (that is, one round of threecount, then
a twocount, a onecount, a twocount and then all over again). As you can see,
the name 'countdown' is actually not really appropriate as there is as much
counting up as there is down, but what the heck. The countdown from 3 is the
shortest of the patterns worth denoting with the dubious term (a countdown from
2 would be a pps). It actually only has 8 throws before it repeats itself, which
makes it onesided (as 8 is an even number). The entire throwing sequence is
then psspspps. Some people (myself included) find it easier to remember the
entire sequence rather than counting down (and up). I normally think of it as
one round of a threecount (that is 'pssp') followed immediately by the reverse
(that is 'spps').
To do this pattern warm up by doing it with 6 clubs. When that feels comfortable
pick up that extra club and proceed to the Copenhagen Countdown.
In this pattern 'Juggler 1' (let this be the best of you if you are not at the
same level  the reason for this will become clear in a moment) starts with
two clubs in each hand throwing the countdown sequence like in the 6club version
but making his passes crossing floaty doubles. If 'Juggler 1' (J1) starts from
the left hand it will be easier for 'Juggler 2' (J2), (so J1 actually does the
lefthanded version of the countdown, while 'J2 does it righthanded. You could
practice the lefthanded version with 6 clubs first if you are sure this won't
mess up your partner's head even more as he will then have to learn it lefthanded.
The terms 'lefthanded' and 'righthanded' are not totally appropriate in this
context as the pattern has two right passes and two left passes, no matter what
hand you start from. However, the pattern is still onesided since it repeats
every eight beats, and it actually feels a bit different doing the 'lefthanded'
version.).
J2 has two clubs in his right and one in his left and does exactly what he was
doing in 6club version (starting righthanded), only his passes are (straight)
floaty doubles (this will be fairly easy if you have the 6club version solid).
J2 starts one and a half beats after J1, so the timing of the start is exactly
like in a 7club threecount, (for more info on the 7club threecount see Kaskade
65).
But wait! There is more! Because to get this to work J1, gets two 'zips' (aka
'handacrosses' or '1s' in normal siteswap) instead of two selfs. The zips are
in the diagram represented by the back pointing arrows. So her entire throwing
sequence is pzspsppz (Note: The first zip in the first round should be thrown
as a normal self, meaning that the first actual zip is throw number 8). This
might all sound very complicated but it is a lot easier than it sounds, as the
zips come natural (if you are used to doing zips, that is). It might also be
helpful to know that the two zips are both from right to left so J1's right
hand will be doing no normal selfs (except for its very first throw) so the
her right hand will be starting with a self and then doing pass, pass, zip,
zip, pass, pass, zip, etc.
Pat 10:
In case anyone is interested, the (fourhanded) site swap for the Copenhagen
Countdown would is 9629669669969929. J1 does 92696992 and J2 starts one and
a half beats later and does 96696996 (Note: For  for a brief explanation of
fourhanded siteswap see Footnote 2 in the article in Cascade 65).
OK, enough explanations. Enjoy and remember that this pattern is not so difficult
 so if you are an ambidextrous 7club passer and this seems impossible you
are probably doing something wrong. If, however, this beauty seems easy  try
the way more challenging versions of the 'Oslo Countdown', or get another mad
passer and try one of the versions of the JaSoN's Countdown which is a pattern
where the feedees do the easy end of the Copenhagen Countdown. If, on the other
hand, you don't feel quite up for that but still want to do some more 'funky
7club passing', then go directly to the 'Bonus Pattern' at the end of the article.
This one is a real bastard as the sequence is 15 beats long (from each side,
that is), and furthermore because of collision danger. If you are planning on
just a little bit of success with this pattern do yourself the favour to learn
the 6club version. Just do one round of fourcount, one of threecount, one
of twocount, a onecount, a two count, a threecount, and then all over starting
with the other hand. The throwing sequence is pssspsspsppspss.
The original version of the Oslo Countdown is a synchronous pattern where both
jugglers do straight (!) passes  either on triples or doubles (mathematically
it is supposed to be triples, but doubles may  or may not  be easier to control).
It was courageously invented and attempted last summer with Magnus in the centre
of Oslo). Especially around the onecount the pattern gets a bit weird for J1
as the sequence goes (starting from throw number 8) … pass, hold, pass,
pass, zip, pass, empty hand, zip, pass, hold … Anyway  here it is. Good
luck. J1 starts with 4 clubs.
Pat 11:
If you can't get it work, don't worry  I have only managed to do three quarters
of it so far, but since that is counting down, up and down again it means that
it by no means is impossible. When we tried it in doubles we found that making
the fourcount very fast (try to do a 7club fourcount in doubles in stead
of triples to warm up). The onecount, on the other hand, should be nice and
slooooow.
Once you have tried your luck with this one you can try a version that is (possibly)
a bit easier. (I say 'possibly' because I have actually never done this one
as the only decent passing partner here in Copenhagen is JoePass!) there is
an asynchronous version that might be a bit easier, as all the passes are floaty
doubles (definitely doubles!), and as it contains no holds or empty hands. However
there is a self double, but hey  if you have gotten this far that shouldn't
be a problem. J1 starts with 4 clubs, and J2 starts one and a half beats later.
Pat 12:
The monster siteswap for that one would be
966966869669669669969929962966
where each juggler juggles the following:
1: 9668 966 96 9 92 926
2: 9666 966 96 9 96 966
(The underlined sequence is a mirror image of the Copenhagen Countdown!).
OK enough of these weirdies  there are still loads of possibilities of coming
up with other countdowns. I know that Tarim has come up with a few  but in
his versions J2 doesn't juggle anything like a countdown  therefore I have
left them out. Let's just finish off the countdown section with a pattern for
three people. Presenting: 'JaSoN's Countdown Feed' (little fanfare in the readers
mind).
This pattern I invented in Rotterdam last year with Simon and Nick, but unfortunately
they live in Germany and England, so I haven't had the chance to get it really
solid. The pattern has both an 11club version and a 12club version (I don't
remember which one we did in Rotterdam  but we had it working for a while so
it was there were probably only 11 pieces of plastic in the air).
Anyway, warm up by juggling it with 9 clubs. 'Feedee 1' (F1) does psspspps
while 'Feedee 2' (F2) starts four beats later thus doing sppspssp (don't get
confused by the hyphen  it, doesn't mean anything, is for the people that choose
to think of the countdown from 3 as a pssp followed by the reverse: spps). The
feeder (FF) does ultimate starting with two inside passes then going into the
sequence which is four outside passes, four inside passes etc. This is a nice
pattern and can be extended to the nfeed, the wfeed etc. In these cases only
the two jugglers on the end do the countdown  all the others are feeding. Well,
back to The Real Stuff.
To do the 11club version have have the two feedees do the easy end of the Copenhagen
Countdown (that is straight double passes and no zips). F1 starts with 4 clubs
and does psspspps. F2 has 3 clubs and starts at the same time as F1 doing sppspssp.
Both start with the right hand. FF starts at the same time as the feedees but
from the left hand and he does ultimate. He does one inside pass before going
into the real sequence which is four outside passes (starting from the right)
followed by four inside passes (also starting right, of course). All the passes
are normal (not floaty) straight doubles as this pattern is synchronous.
Pat 13:
FF is the centre line and F1 is the top line, and F2 is the bottom line. If
you don't understand the difference between inside and outside passes imagine
that you are walking along the middle line of the causal diagram passing in
the direction of the arrow (with the appropriate hand) each time you walk over
one of the letters.
In the 12club version all the passes are floaty doubles and F2 (this time
equipped with 4 clubs) starts with a left hand pass half a beat before the feeder
and a whole beat before F1. FF and F1 both start with the right hand. F2 starts
one throw earlier in the throwing sequence thus doing pspps before going into
the Copenhagen Countdown sequence. To get this to work FF will be crossing and
the feedees doing straight passes (as in the diagram), but it can also be done
with FF going straight, and the feedees doing crossing passes. Have fun!
Pat 14:
This last pattern has got its own chapter, not because it is better than the
others, but simply because it doesn't seem to be related to any of the other
patterns described here. It is a pppss and it is not too hard to juggle, but
lots of fun. J1 starts with 4 clubs and throws three crossing double passes
(not floaty) followed by two normal selfs. J2 starts at the same time as the
other and throws a self before starting the pppss sequence which goes: straight
single pass, straight single pass, straight triple pass, self, self. As this
pattern has odd length cycle it takes 10 beats before it repeats. This pattern
is a real jewel. Groove on this.
Pat 15:
OK, enough of this  next time it is popcorn time  'groovy baby'.
Patterns with a Cause  Top 
Author: Jon SkjerningRasmussen
Credits: Kaskade 68
And so it came to pass: new patterns were discovered and questions were asked, and in due time this article, the fourth of its kind, took form. Aiming to lure its readers into the vast regions of club passing anno 2002 this article explains, clarifies and elaborates on patterns, notations and diagrams, in a way that opens up these areas to beginners as well as more advanced passers. In other words: if you want to learn how to read causal diagrams and develop your own variations, read this. If you already know this and just want some of the new wild 7club patterns go straight to the second part. In the article I try to stay as simple as possible. Therefore I have moved much additional stuff and www links into the notes at the end of the article.
After writing three articles on 7club passing I was told that a lot of people
had read them but didn't understand the diagrams, so here I explain what you
need to know to read and use these diagrams. Let's start by looking at what
I consider the basic 6club passing pattern: the 3count (right pass, self,
self, left pass, self, self…) (see footnote 1).
Diagram 1:
To read the diagram it is enough to know that the first line represents one
juggler (J1) and the second line the other juggler (J2), R means 'right', L
means 'left', time goes from left to right and the distance from the first throw
(the first R) to the second throw (the first L) is one beat. The numbers are
not normally included but represent the normal twohanded siteswap values of
the throws, and will probably prove helpful to those who understand them  if
you don't understand siteswap, don't worry (see footnote 2), the diagrams explain
the patterns perfectly and much more visually. The diagram reads in the direction
of time (from left to right), and the arrows that stay in the same line (e.g.,
with J1) represent self throws while the arrows that go from one line to the
other are passes (e.g., from J1 to J2).
To find out what you have to do you can imagine that you are walking along your
line and doing what it says on each grey tile. In this pattern both jugglers
start at the same time with a right hand single pass to the other's left hand
(a straight pass), then one beat later, they throw a single left hand self (a
3) and then a right hand self, then a left hand single straight pass, a right
self and a left self, and then back to the beginning of the diagram. Normally
only one round of the pattern is shown, but some places I have put in two or
more to get a better feel of the continuity and the tricks.
When you get to the end of the diagram you simply go back to the beginning,
and if you have the diagram on paper you can actually cut it out and make a
loop of the strip.
"Causal Diagrams are very easy for a club juggler to read because an arrow that travels one beat along the chart happens, by a lucky chance, to be a Single. Similarly a two beat arrow is a Double, three beats for a Triple and so on" (The Compendium of Club Juggling p. 20).
In relation to siteswap you can say that the length of the arrow = x2 where
x is the normal twohanded siteswap value of the throw. So a 5 is (usually)
a triple as 52 = arrow length 3.
Here is the 4club solo pattern 534, (or cross triple, cross single, self double).
Diagram 2:
Especially in 7club passing a lot of patterns are asynchronous (i.e., no hands
throw at the same time), When that is the case the passes (but not the selfs)
are half a beat longer and are normally thrown as floaty singles, doubles, triples,
etc. In the diagram this is represented by two shifted lines of L's and R's,
as in diagrams 3 and 912.
Here are two rounds of 7club 3count with floaty double passes.
Diagram 3:
If you study the diagram you will notice that you can connect the arrows to
form three long lines (causal lines), going from the start to the end of the
pattern  that means that this is a 6club pattern. Why? Because the number
of object = the number of causal lines (in this case 3) + the number of hands
in use (in this case 4, as I here am only dealing with patterns where each juggler
uses both hands to juggle, but it works for any number of hands). A 6club,
2person pattern has 2 causal lines (as for example in diagram 3), an 8club
pattern has 4, and so on. This has to do with that the arrows don't represent
objects, but causes (in the sense that each club is thrown because another club
is arriving  see footnote 3), hence the name 'causal diagram'. Charley Dancey
explains:
"Each line in the Causal Diagram leads from one throw to the throw that
is caused by it" (The Compendium of Club Juggling p. 18).
So to find out how many objects there are in a given causal diagram, simply
draw a vertical line and see how many arrows it crosses and then add the number
of hands.
Now we come to a thing that is a bit tricky about causal diagrams: backwards
pointing arrows. That an arrow is pointing backwards in time doesn't, however,
mean that the objects are travelling backwards in time (sorry!), but it is because
the arrows don't represent objects but causes (if this sounds weird to you,
don't worry, as I said, you don't need to know it, just accept it  see footnote
4).
An arrow pointing back one beat is a 1 (or a zip or handacross), and an arrow
pointing back two beats is a 0 or an empty hand. An arrow pointing back to the
same spot is a 2 (normally a hold). Let Charlie explain again:
The 2's are shown as causal arrows that cause themselfs. This is not quite as crazy as it sounds, the plain English translation of this mathematical oddity is that you are holding an object because you are holding it.
The 1 … produces a causal arrow moving one beat to the left. It seems to be illogical but it actually means: to place a club into that hand you had to empty it first!
The 0, or empty hand, produces a highly unlikely looking arrow that moves two beats to the left. The meaning of this is: for the hand to be empty you must have made a throw from it [two beats] beforehand" (The Compendium of Club Juggling p. 21).
Here is one round of twoclub shower (31), two out of three clubs in a 3club
cascade (330), and then a hold (2). Notice that the zip and the empty hand are
in the hand where the arrow starts. Note also that in counting causal lines
backwards pointing arrows count negative, so actually there are 0 causal lines
going from the beginning to the end of the pattern, hence there are the same
amount of objects as there are hands (here two).
Diagram 4:
Here are the diagrams for J1 passing one club back and forth between her two
hands, while J2 has no clubs. As the arrows are pointing backwards here it means
that there are 3 causal lines (see footnote 5), with four hands that makes
one club.
Diagram 5:
An early double by J1 and an early triple by J2 in a 4count looks like this:
Diagram 6:
The answer to this is fairly simple. Each hand starts with 1+a clubs  a represents
the number of arrow pointing to the hand from beyond the start of the diagram.
In diagram 7 you see that there is one arrow pointing to J1's first L, one to
his first R and one to J2's first R. This means that J1 has two clubs in each
hand while J2 has two in the right and one in the left. If she wants to start
with a pass, she just waits one beat and has two clubs in the left hand. This
rule is easily applicable to most diagrams, but as faith will have it, the one
of the next patterns (diagram 9) is an exception where J1 has three in the right
and one in the left. This is because the left hand needs to be empty to receive
the first zip from the right hand. (A way to avoid this is to do a hold instead
of the first zip, but only in the first round).
Inventing new patterns using causal diagrams is very easy (except that often
the patterns you invent are not new), just draw a line of R L R L R L R L R
Ls for each juggler on a piece of paper and connect them all with each other,
if all letters are connected with one incoming and one outgoing arrow, it is
juggleable (in theory). If you have a computer you can use Wolfgang's wonderful
program JoePass! (see the links) which makes it even easier to play with causal
diagrams  and playing with them is the easiest way to learn to understand them.
You find the link at the end of this article.
In designing new patterns it is important to remember that each letter (L or
R) must have exactly one arrow starting and one ending there for the pattern
to be valid. When adding people to the pattern just add lines in this feed,
where feeder does pass, pass, self and the feedees do a 3count, all on singles.
Note that the feeder is in the middle, that way the arrows don't have to go
from the top line to the bottom line. If you do pattern where everyone passes
with everyone (like triangles or feasts) you need arrows from each line to each
other line.
Diagram 7:
In this pattern all three jugglers start simultaneously from the right hand,
the feeder and the top feedee with a pass, the bottom feedee with a self and
then a left pass.
It is also possible that the jugglers start at different times, like in the
normal 7club threecount (diagram 3), where J2 starts one and half beats later,
or in the 7club two count where J2 start one beat later (provided J2 wants
to start with a pass). Here is the causal diagram for that one  (it is shown
left handed just to annoy all them right handed passers!).
Diagram 8:
Here I show three rounds of the pattern, as one round consists of only two beats.
And now it's time to use your newly acquired knowledge about causal diagrams to learn some new 7club patterns invented during the winter and spring on JoePass!. As I don't have anyone to do serious passing with here in Copenhagen, I had to wait until EJC in Bremen to try them out with Iñaki some late night  and to tell you the truth, I was positively surprised, as I found them more interesting than I had expected. Well let's start where we started that long night with two 7club 3counts.
This first pattern we found quite difficult to juggle, but we managed to get
5 rounds of it, so it is definitely possible. The fourhanded siteswap (see footnote
6) for this pattern is 1029 (see footnote 7). The causal diagram should now
explain the rest.
Diagram 9:
To start this pattern J1 has 3 clubs in her right hand and 1 in the left. She
starts at the beginning of the diagram, throwing self crossing triples, left
straight pass, zip, and then the same starting from the left. J2 has 2 clubs
in his right hand and 1 in the left. He starts one and a half beats later doing
the same sequence as J1, except that his passes are crossing. As this pattern
is a 3count it can be juggled by J1 while J2 does a normal 3count (or a French
3count  see Kaskade 67 for this pattern explained). To go into it from a normal
3count do pass, self, self crossing triple, pass, zip, self crossing triple,
etc. It is of course also possible to throw only one round of this like a trick
in a normal (or French) 3count (this is probably easier than doing it continuously,
but I wouldn't know, as I just thought of it now).
The next pattern is 948 in fourhanded siteswap and has a very nice causal diagram.
Diagram 10:
Actually this pattern is a normal 3count with a 42 (see footnote 8) (self double,
hold) instead of the two normal selfs. This we first discovered after having
learned the pattern, and it actually feels very different from the normal 3count
 especially if the 2 is thrown instead of held.
The start is like in a normal 7club 3count, with each juggler just doing 42
instead of 33.
When I was asked to write this fourth article I of course tried to come up
with some new patterns for it. However, I ran into one problem, I kept inventing
'old' patterns, or very slight variations of them, but I think I managed to
come up with two new patterns. The first one is a bookends with a hold and the
second one I don't know how to classify, but is somehow related to the French
3count, but also a little popcornish.
The bookends is 97647.
Diagram 11:
To juggle it J1 has 4 clubs and starts at the beginning of the diagram cross
double, self, straight single, cross double, hold (or little funky 2throw).
J2 starts half a beat later (almost at the same time) and does straight double,
hold (or 2throw), straight double, self, cross single. This pattern is very
nice to juggle, since the hold gives it a funny and refreshing rhythm. I don't
think Iñaki and I managed to get it solid enough to throw the 2s every
time, so I don't know how that is, but I kinda like having holds in passing
patterns, it somehow gives them new potential, as you suddenly can put a whole
range of tricks in there.
The other 5count I managed to come up with is more simple, it is 96686 and
looks like this (see footnote 9):
Diagram 12:
J1 has 4 clubs and does straight double pass, self, self, self, straight self
double. J2 starts one and a half beats later and does straight self double,
cross double pass, self, self, self.
This pattern is really nice as it has three selfs left to play with. Siteswapwise
you can do 441, 531, 522, 423 or 342 as very nice variations. I really recommend
to try out trying all variations in a continuous pattern, as they are lovely
patterns in their own right. Actually we learned some of them as patterns before
we realised that they were variations of 96686, and it was almost disappointing
to realise what they were.
Well, I think that was all for me, and if all goes after the plan Sean Gandini
will write about popcorn feeds or something like that, next time.
1. Many people still consider the 4count to be the basic pattern,
but as that is a very onesided pattern, that limits the left hand to the odd
early double, I strongly recommend practicing all tricks from a 3count, as
this will enable you to be able to do all tricks from both sides and as it is
a much more balanced pattern. If you want to get into more complex patterns,
being used to do left hand passes makes it possible to do more than ten times
as many patterns (just imagine if in solo juggling the left hand always did
selfs  3's  how boring).
2. If, however, you do worry and want to learn about siteswap check out
the Internet.
3. This is not important to understand either, but basically causal diagrams
only deal with 'problems' (two hands and two clubs = no problem; two hands and
three clubs = one problem; four hands and seven clubs = three problems; etc.).
4. But if you are interested, check out
http://www.freedome.org/orr/PassingPage/ClubPassing/Help.htm
(Itzik Orr).
and an article about mhn & causals
(Christophe Préchac)
5. That there is negative one causal lines makes sense when you consider
that there is nothing that causes the club to be passed to the other hand (except,
of course, the mind of the juggler). In 'normal' juggling an object is thrown
when another object approaches the hand, in that way the approaching object
can be said to be the cause of the following throw.
6. For explanation of fourhanded siteswap see Kaskade 65. Briefly can
be said that to get 'normal' siteswap simply divide by two. Odd numbers are
floaty passes and even numbers are selfs. Note that in fourhanded siteswap the
two jugglers share the throws, so that in the sequence 'abcde' J1 does 'acebd',
while J2 does 'bdace'.
7. 10 reads ten and not one zero, which is quite logical as 1s are virtually
impossible to throw in fourhanded siteswaps, as they would be very fast handacrosses
from one juggler to the other.
8. When I write about what one juggler does I often use normal twohanded
siteswap  I hope this it is n't too confusing.
9. Actually this pattern is a 5count popcorn with an early double, if
the popcorn is 86867, not that it really matters, but that just shows how all
the patterns are related. For more on this see the last issue of Kaskade (67).
7 o?clock pop!  Top 
Author: Jon SkjerningRasmussen
Credits: Kaskade 67
This third article in my series on 7club passing is about one of my favourite
branches of patterns: 'Popcorns', and I must confess that most of these patterns
are not my inventions. It is mainly thanks to Sean Gandini that I can present
this section. I have, however, taken some of the patterns a bit further to funk
up some already very funky patterns. Before we get into the patterns just a
few words on what popcorns are.
As I will mainly be dealing with 7 club popcorns, I won't need to get into Gandini's
technical definitions here. In this section it is sufficient to say that a 7club
popcorn is one where one juggler juggles 4 clubs for a few beats while the other
does 3 at the same speed (or maybe at a different speed?). Normally the 4 clubs
are juggled as triplesingle, but they might as well be in the 4club fountain
style. Some people prefer the term Twin Towers for this variation, but I don't
know about that…
The classic popcorn is a 6count (which makes it onesided), and both jugglers
do normal selfs from the left while the right hand does: crossing triple self,
straight double pass, single self. I normally start with the triple, and the
other juggler waits three beats and then starts with her triple. The timing
in the start is the same as in normal boring righthanded 7club shower (that
is, wait until the double is half way and then start  but with a self triple!).
Pat 16:
This is a great pattern and it has heaps of variations. Try for instance to
throw the triples as backcrosses or do one round of the Twin Towers, in stead
of the triplesingle (that is 44 instead of 53). As each juggler throws three
single selfs in a row after the pass, starting with the left hand. Try to substitute
this for one round of lefthanded 441 or 531 (each of which has its own body
variations). 531 is particularly spectacular as the 5 is thrown at the same
time as the other juggler's normal self triple. Another variation that I just
thought of now is to throw the double pass as a straight self double, followed
by a left crossing single pass (which then arrives on time). The possibilities
are infinite once you start using a pattern like this as a base pattern for
tricks and syncopations.
As this popcorn is a 6count it is incredibly easy to pick up when you drop
 once you know how to (picking up that is, we all know how to drop). To practice
this, put 1 club at each juggler's feet and do very slow asynchronous shower
on doubles with the remaining 5 clubs while 'holding through the gap' (that
is, never pass when you are just holding two clubs). In causal diagram it looks
like this:
Pat 17:
Whenever you want, pick up your extra club just after your pass and then start
with your self triple as your partner's pass is half way. Once you can pick
up in this pattern you can keep it going almost forever.
The only drawback about this pattern is that it is onesided… But fear
not here comes a bothsided version. Presenting the 7count Popcorn:
To juggle this pattern all you have to do is:
add an extra self,
make your passes a bit more floaty,
convince your partner that this won't work unless she crosses her passes.
This pattern is a real beauty and can actually be even more relaxed than the
6count as you don't have to concentrate on keeping your passes lowish.
Pat 18:
Try the same variations as in the 6count version. Now you can chose where to
put the 441 or the 531 as you have 4 selfs to play with. Or you can do 3club
site swaps with a sequence of 4, like the ultra funky 5340. If done continually
you can actually add an extra club and do a floaty single pass instead of the
0 (See pat. 26 below).
Making the double pass a straight self (a normal 4), followed by a floaty single
pass (crossing if you were doing straights and vice versa), makes a fantastic
pattern (10666867 in fourhanded siteswap  each juggler does 10687666  see
footnote 1). If you can both juggle 534 solo you have a bigger chance of success,
as you throw a righthanded 534 followed by a floaty single pass and three selfs
and then the same but lefthanded.
Pat 19:
For bigger chance of success in this pattern let J1 start like in the normal
7count popcorn, as it can be quite hard otherwise to get the timing right for
J2. As you probably normally tend to time your triples after the incoming double
passes it will probably take a few attempts to get used to receiving single
passes (not to mention throwing them while looking up at your triple!)  but
if you take the time to learn it you will be rewarded by extra thrill, and you
will be able to go on to the next pattern… If, however, you give up here
then move on to pattern 21, which is quite a lot easier.
OK, you are still here! For extra funk you can put all the variations of the
6count popcorn into it, as there are still three selfs left to play with. Here
it is shown with J1 doing a popcorn with a 531 (106871062) while J2 does the
Twin Towers version with a 441 (8887882).
Pat 20:
Obviously this is quite difficult, and I recommend using pat. 19 as base pattern,
and then putting in the siteswaps (and body moves) once you have it running
smoothly.
A bothhanded popcorn can also be done on a 5count where each juggler does
crossing self triple, self, floaty single pass, self, self (J1 straight, J2
crossing). This pattern is not actually that difficult, though still lovely.
Pat 21:
The siteswap, for those who need that kind of information: 106667 (each juggler
does 106766). As a self triple is thrown every 5 beats it will be the same club
that does all the triples = very easy to remember.
For syncopations there are not that many possibilities, as there are only two
selfs, there not so many obvious site swap variations. However 42 is nice, especially
if you throw the 2 as a low self single  or whatever you can come up with.
(51 unfortunately doesn't work  'clash'). Try also throwing an extra self triple
on the beat right before the normal triple, this means that you get a zip instead
of self after the second triple (got that? Well basically you just throw 551
before the pass instead of 353.
Reversing the logic of before (where we changed the 7count so that we passed
a single one beat later) we can likewise throw what would be an early double
followed by a hold  which again opens new possibilities, as you now have a
hold and your two selfs (that is a 233) to play with. Try, for instance, to
throw a 530, a 440 or a 413 there, or even a 512 (with or without actually throwing
the 2). Here you can see these four variations with J1 doing 413 and 512 and
J2 doing 440 and 530.
Pat 22:
Now we have had 5, 6 and 7count popcorns, but also 4count and 3count are
possible.
To do a 4count (onesided) popcorn, reverse the throwing rhythm of the well
known 7 club 4count passing pattern 'tripleself', so that the triples are
selfs and the right hand singles are passes (the left hand still only throws
single selfs). This mightn't be so interesting in itself, but it can be thrown
towards a 'tripleself' or as a trick in it. I haven't bothered working out
tricks and syncopations for this as it's a righthanded pattern, and I prefer
to use both halves of my brain!
More interesting (for me) is the 3count versions of popcorn. Following the
logic of the previous patterns the basic 3count version of popcorn would be
throwing a self triple followed by a single self and then a very quick pass
(a low flat):
Pat 23:
This pattern is almost impossible to do nicely (or even not nicely)  it might
even be dangerous to attempt this with clubs, as the pass is a 5, (or what would
be a 2,5 in solo juggling). However I've been told that it is possible (though
still stupidly difficult) to do it with rings. To make it juggleable with clubs
it is, however, possible to throw every pass one beat earlier and as a single
or to throw every pass on the same beat as normal but as a single (the passes
are in both cases straight if you were crossing and vice versa). Both emerging
patterns will have a hold (or a funky little 2throw, if you want) the siteswaps
are 1047 and 1074. (For 8 clubs try 'triple self, pass, pass': 1077).
Pat 24:
Pat 25:
Let's have a pattern that has been around for a few years, a pattern that may
or may not be a popcorn, namely the French 3count, or the 867  a real beauty
once you crack it.
Pat 26:
J1 starts with a self double and then a floaty straight single pass followed
by a self single. J2 starts one and a half beats later with a left self double,
then a right floaty single crossing pass and a left self.
And for the ones who still haven't had enough I present a last minute wild
8club popcornish thing that I invented with Dani in Barcelona a few days ago
 it is a 7count, and it rocks, what more can I say. We have almost done a
whole round of it, but it feels very right. J1 passes straight singles and crossing
doubles, J2 vice versa. To start let J2 start with a left hand self triple immediately
followed by a self triple by J1. as I'm running out of article space I'll let
this siteswap (101066897  each juggler does 106910687) and the casual diagram
speak for itself.
Pat: 27
Pop 'til you drop!
Footnote:
1 For a brief explanation of this see Kaskade 65. If you don't have that then
just remember that odd numbers are passes and even are selfs and if you want
the "normal" siteswap numbers just divide by 2.
Passing Siteswap (4hands Siteswap)  Top 
Author: Norihide Tokushige
Original PDF version available at: http://www.cc.uryukyu.ac.jp/~hide/siteswap.pdf
There are a couple of variations of siteswap notation for passing. For example, Buhler–Graham–Wright introduced a notion of juggling poset. Any passing siteswap can be represented by using a juggling poset, but it is not so handy. On the other hand, we are familiar with the usual siteswap, i.e., siteswap for two hands. Why not interpret the usual siteswap as a siteswap for passing? In this note, we propose several ways of interpretation from the usual siteswap to the passing siteswap. We can not obtain all passing patterns in this way, but we can still find infinitely many new, interesting passing siteswaps. One of the good points of our method is the simplicity of the notation. For example, 7 club 3count is “966,” Jim’s 3count is “7746666,” or Flurry is “726” in our notation.
Remember how 77722 goes in the usual siteswap. We associate the right hand and the left hand alternately to the sequence in the following
7 7 7 2 2 7 7 7 2 2 ... R L R L R L R L R L ...
Now two jugglers, say Hide and Tomoko, juggle this sequence as a passing pattern. So they associate H and T instead of R and L.
7 7 7 2 2 7 7 7 2 2 ... H T H T H T H T H T ...
But both Hide and Tomoko have two hands, they actually juggle as follows:
number : 7 7 7 2 2 7 7 7 2 2 ... Hide/Tomoko : H T H T H T H T H T ... hand : R R L L R R L L R R ... club : 1 2 3 4 5 4 5 1 2 3 ...
Then
this is a 5 clubs passing pattern, and it looks like 7 club 1count with some
hand acrosses. Hide’s sequence is 77272 and Tomoko’s sequence is 72772.
Looking at the sequence more carefully, we find that Hide’s 7 is straight
pass, while Tomoko’s 7 is cross pass. (We assume that they are passing in
the face to face position.) In the usual siteswap 2 means holding a prop, but
in our case 2 means the (self) hand across.
Next, imagine Hide and Tomoko are
doing 77722 in the above sense. If we identify Hide’s right and left hands
with a big Right hand, and identify Tomoko’s right and left hands with a
big Left hand, then we get a picture of the usual 77722 siteswap by this imaginary
big juggler — let’s call him Ninja. This is the basic idea of how to
connect the usual siteswap and our passing siteswap.
Ninja’s
asynchronous siteswap such as 77722 is interpreted as an asynchronous passing
siteswap for Hide and Tomoko. The rule of the interpretation is the following:
(rule)  Ninja  :  R  L  R  L 
H & T  :  HR  TR  HL  TL 
Hide
starts first with his right hand, and then Tomoko’s right hand follows. Hide
takes Ninja’s right hand, and Tomoko takes Ninja’s left hand. This implies
that even numbers are self, and odd numbers are pass. As for even numbers, multiple
of 4 (0,4,8,...) is straight self, and even but not multiple of 4 (2,6,10,...)
is cross self.
More practically,
numberself throw 0empty hand 2hand across 4holding a club or flourish 6cross single spin 8straight double spin 10cross triple spin
Odd numbers are a little bit
tricky. The same number for Hide and for Tomoko means different type of pass.
numberHide's pass Tomoko's pass spin 5cross straight half? (fast) 7straight cross single (slow) 9cross straight double 11straight cross triple
Let us see an example. 7777266 is a 6 club passing pattern known as Mild Madness.
number : 7 7 7 7 2 6 6 7 7 7 7 2 6 6 7 7 7 7 2 6 6 Hide/Tomoko : H T H T H T H T H T H T H T H T H T H T H hand : R R L L R R L L R R L L R R L L R R L L R pass / self : p p p p s s s p p p p s s s p p p p s s s cross / straight : s c s c c c c c s c s c c c s c s c c c c club : 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 1 2 3 4 6 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 5
Hide’s sequence is 7726776, that is pass, pass, hand across, self, pass, pass, self, and all passes are straight. Tomoko’s sequence is 7767726, that is pass, pass, self, pass, pass, hand across, self, and all passes are cross.
Ninja’s synchronized siteswap is translated
into a synchronized passing siteswap for Hide and Tomoko. Synchronized passing
means that at each time two hands (not necessarily two hands of one juggler) are
position of throwing clubs. There are three different translations — HT,
RR, RL.
Hide and Tomoko take Ninja’s sequence alternately. The rule is as follows.
(rule)  Ninja  :  (R,L)  (R,L) 
H & T  :  (HR,HL)  (TL,TR) 
Ninja’s right corresponds to Hide’s right and Tomoko’s left. Ninja’s left corresponds to Hide’s left and Tomoko’s right. A multiple of 4 (0,4,8,...) is self, and pass is otherwise (2,6,10...). A number with “x” is cross, and a number without “x” is straight.
2, 6, 10, ... : straight pass 2x, 6x, 10x, ... : cross pass 0, 4, 8, ... : straight self 4x, 8x, 12x, ... : cross self
For example, (6,6) is the 6 club synchronized 1count. Let us see another example. (6,4)(6x,4)(4,6)(4,6x) is a 5 club pattern. If you do 4 as a single straight self, this pattern looks like 5 club 1count with extra single selves.
number : (6,4) (6x,4) (4,6) (4,6x) (6,4) (6x,4) (4,6) (4,6x)H / T : H H T T H H T T H H T T H H T TR / L : R L L R R L L R R L L R R L L Rp / s : p s p s s p s p p s p s s p s pc / s : s s c s s s s c s s c s s s s cclub : 1 2 3 4 5 2 1 4 5 3 1 2 4 3 5 2
Hide’s sequence is (6,4)(4,6), that is (straight pass, straight self) (straight self, straight pass). Tomoko’s sequence is (4,6x)(6x,4) if we write numbers in (right, left) order and this is (straight self, cross pass)(cross pass, straight self).
Hide’s right and Tomoko’s right are synchronized, and so both their left hands as well. The rule is as follows.
(rule)  Ninja  :  (R,L)  (R,L) 
H & T  :  (HR,TR)  (HL,TL) 
Hide takes Ninja’s right and Tomoko takes Ninja’s left. A number with “x” is pass, and a number without “x” is self. For self, a multiple of 4 is straight. For pass, a multiple of 4 is cross.
2, 6, 10, ... : cross self 2x, 6x, 10x, ... : straight pass 0, 4, 8, ... : straight self 4x, 8x, 12x, ... : cross pass
For example, (6x,6x) is the 6 club asynchronous 1count, (6x,6x)(6,6) is the 6 club 2count. Let us see another 6 club passing pattern (8x,6)(6,8)(2,6x). This is a neat variation of 3count passing.
number : (8x,6) (6,8) (2,6x) (8x,6) (6,8) (2,6x) (8x,6) (6,8) (2,6x) H / T : H T H T H T H T H T H T H T H T H TR / L : R R L L R R L L R R L L R R L L R Rp / s : p s s s s p p s s s s p p s s s s pc / s : c c c s c s c c c s c s c c c s c sclub : 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 2 3 1 6 4 6 2 3 5 4 1
Hide’s sequence is 8x,6,2
that is pass, self, self (all cross). Tomoko’s sequence is 6,8,6x that is
self, self, pass (cross, straight, straight).
Hide’s right and Tomoko’s left are synchronized. The rule is as follows.
(rule)  Ninja  :  (R,L)  (R,L) 
H & T  :  (TL,HR)  (TR,HL) 
Hide takes Ninja’s left and Tomoko takes Ninja’s right. A number with “x” is pass, and a number without “x” is self. A multiple of 4 is straight for both pass and self.
2, 6, 10, ... : cross self 2x, 6x, 10x, ... : cross pass 0, 4, 8, ... : straight self 4x, 8x, 12x, ... : straight pass
For example, (8x,6)(6,8x) is the 7 club 2count, (10,6)(6,6)(8x,6)(6,10)(6,6)(6,8x) is the 7 club popcorn.
An asynchronous pattern can be transformed to a synchronized pattern by shifting one beat on one side of ladder diagram. The rule is the following:
(rule)  async sequence ab > sync sequence (p,q) 
p = a if a is even  
p = (a1)x if a is odd  
q = b if b is even  
q = (b+1)x if b is odd 
For this conversion, we need to
divide an asynchronous sequence into two digits segments. For example, 77722 is
transformed as follows.
77 72 27 77 22 > (6x,8x)(6x,2)(2,8x)(6x,8x)(2,2)
In this case, the only change is the length
of pass. Hide’s pass decreases one beat, while Tomoko’s pass increases
one beat. (No changes for self, no changes for the
direction(cross/straight)
of pass.)
sequence : 77 72 27 77 22 > (6x,8x) (6x,2) (2,8x) (6x,8x) (2,2)Hide/Tomoko : HT HT HT HT HT H T H T H T H T H Thand : RR LL RR LL RR R R L L R R L L R R
In this case, the only change is the length of pass. Hide’s pass increases one beat, while Tomoko’s pass decreases one beat. (No changes for self, no changes for the direction(cross/straight) of pass.)
sequence : 27 77 22 77 22 > (2,8x) (6x,8x) (2,2) (6x,8x) (6x,2)Hide/Tomoko : TH TH TH TH TH T H T H T H T H T Hhand : LR RL LR RL LR L R R L L R R L L R
For practical convenience for doing RL pattern, Tomoko can start the same sequence as asynchronous pattern after one beat pause.
sequence : 7 77 22 77 22 > (,8x) (6x,8x) (2,2) (6x,8x) (6x,2)Hide/Tomoko : TH TH TH TH TH T H T H T H T H T Hhand : R RL LR RL LR  R R L L R R L L R
There
are many variations of 3count and PPS passing patterns for RR, RL type coming
from ground state siteswaps.
Notation: Hide takes a sequence from the left
part, and Tomoko takes a sequence from the right part.
{8x62,86x2}
* {68x6,686x,a8x2,ax82}
For example, Hide takes 8x62, and Tomoko takes 686x. Then, (8x,6)(6,8)(2,6x) is a 3count pattern for RR and RL. In the above case, there are 2 * 4 = 8 different 3count patterns for RR (and 8 for RL, too). (Remember 2 means hand across, 6 means single, 8 means double, a means triple. Numbers with x means pass, numbers without x means self. For self, 2,6,a are cross, 8 is straight. For RR type, 6x, ax are straight pass, 8x is cross pass. For RL type, 6x, ax are cross pass, 8x is straight pass.)
3count
{88x2,ax62,666x}
* {88x2,ax62,666x}
{8x82,66x6,a6x2} * {8x82,66x6,a6x2}
{6x62} * {88x6,886x,ax66,a66x}
{6x82}
* {86x6,8x66}
{8x62,86x2} * {68x6,686x,a8x2,ax82}
PPS
{8x8x2,ax6x2,66x6x}
{6x6x2}
* {8x8x6,8x86x,a6x6x,ax6x6}
{6x8x2} * {86x6x,8x66x}
3count
{6x68,6xa4,668x,6ax4,848x,8ax2}
* {886x,88x6,a8x4,ax66,ax84,a66x}
{8xa4,86x8} * {68x6,a46x,a8x2,ax46,ax82}
{6x88,688x,6ax6,8x68,a48x,aax2}
* {8x66,8x84,a6x4}
{6xa6,6ax6,a48x,aax2} * {86x6,8x66,8x84,a6x4}
{68xa,8a6x,axa4,88x8,ax68}
* {666x,68x4,846x,88x2,ax44,ax62}
{aa6x,ax88,a8x8,axa6} * {66x4,86x2,8x44,8x62}
{8xa6,a6x8,8x88}
* {8x46,8x82,a6x2}
PPS
{6x66x,6x8x4}
* {88x8x,8ax6x,axax4,ax68x,6x8xa}
{6x6x4} * {a8x8x,aax6x,ax88x,axax6}
{6x6x8,8xax2}
* {8x8x6,ax6x6,8x86x,a6x6x}
{6x86x,6x8x6} * {86x8x,8xax4,8x68x,6x6ax}
{6x8x8,6xa6x,axax2,68x8x,6ax6x,ax48x,axax2}
* {86x6x,8x66x,8x8x4,ax6x4}
{8x66x} * {axax2}
{8x8x8} * {8x8x2,ax6x2}
{8xa6x,ax6x8}
* {8x46x,8x8x2,ax6x2}
1count
{6x6x6x}
* {8x8x8x,8xax6x}
Norihide Tokushige
College of Education,
Ryukyu University
Nishihara, Okinawa, 9010213 JAPAN
hide@edu.uryukyu.ac.jp
Popcorns I  Top 
Author: Sean Gandini
Credits: Kaskade 69
See the following part, Popcorns II:
asymmetry, synchronicity and more people
Download a ZIP archive with popcorn
patterns for JoePass!.
This article is an abbreviated version of extensive exploration of popcorns that we have undertaken over the last couple of years. Although the first popcorns where distinctively club patterns, the patterns described here are worth trying with all the other classic juggling props, and indeed any other that you can think of.
We have taken for granted a basic understanding of siteswaps and less importantly for this article causal diagrams. Causal Diagrams where explained in the last issue of Kaskade (68). If you are unfamiliar with siteswaps I urge you to spend the couple of hours it takes to gain an understanding of them, for they are an invaluable tool in understanding a myriad of wonderfull juggling patterns.
The passing notation we use is Jack Boyce's extension of classical siteswaps. All patterns are given from the perspective of a 2 handed juggler.
Because of lack of space I haven't included most of the charts. I have put them up on our Internet site where you can also find for sale the laminated versions.
For the purpose of this article we will define popcorn passing patterns as jugglers taking turns at popping. Popping in this context means lifting into an amount of objects higher than the one they previously had and then throwing the extra things back out. We shall return and be more specific with this definition but for now it should serve us well.
As already thoroughly defined in this column the classic popcorn is <5 3 4p 3 3 3  3 3 3 5 3 4p > which since it is symmetrical we can call 5 3 4p 3 3 3
Now for our purposes we want to change the 53 to 44 so as to go from the most simple 4 object pattern to the most simple 3 object pattern. So we get 4 4 4p 3 3 3
Ok so that's a popcorn in its basic state, in this case you juggle 4 for a bit, throw a pass and then juggle 3 for a bit.
So now what we want to do is find all the symmetric patterns of the above form that go from 3 to 4 objects. By Symmetric I mean patterns where both jugglers do the same thing, in this case out of time with each other.
The chart below is the expansion:
Horizontally we expand by adding a 3 on one side of the pass and a 4 on the other. This means that each step along the chart gives each juggler an extra throw of the 2 solo patterns.  
Vertically we expand by adding and removing 3s by increasing and decreasing the pass by half a beat. So for example in club juggling decreasing the pass from a 4 to a 3.5 means doing a floaty single instead of a normal double. 
7 objects popcorn chart
5.5p3333  45.5p33333  445.5p333333  4445.5p3333333  44445.5p33333333  444445.5p333333333 
5p333  45p3333  445p33333  4445p333333  44445p3333333  444445p33333333 
4.5p33  44.5p333  444.5p3333  4444.5p33333  44444.5p333333  444444.5p3333333 
4p3  44p33  444p333  4444p3333  44444p33333  444444p333333 
3.5p  43.5p3  443.5p33  4443.5p333  44443.5p3333  444443.5p33333 
43p  443p3  4443p33  44443p333  444443p3333  
442.5p  4442.5p3  44442.5p33  444442.5p333  
4442p  44442p3  444442p33  
44441.5p  444441.5p3  
444441p3 
The chart expands to infinity upwards and to the right
There are a lot of fun patterns here! Over the last year we have juggled most of them. The lower extremities tend to be the hardest. Our problems started with the 2.5 passes. In principle these are faster than an ordinary 3. We got round it by really slowing down our 4s. I initially included the 1ps,1.5ps and 2ps for aesthetic reasons but have realised that one can turn them into interesting patterns by giving the club, as opposed to passing it.
Notice interestingly that the patterns on the column furthest to the left, 3.5p, 4p3, 4.5p33, 5p333, 5.5p3333 are the usual 7 objects 1count, 2count, 3count, 4count and 5count respectively. Here we encounter our first dilemma since each juggler lifts into the new amount of objects for 0 beats. Are they popcorns?
For a more thorough understanding of the popcorn progression it might help to look at the causal diagram chart for the seven object chart. Sometimes diagrams can speak more than words or numbers.
So now lets look at 8 object popcorns.
There is a chart where both jugglers do the same thing in time with each other, patterns like 46p33, however for now we will concentrate on patterns where the jugglers are symmetrically staggered in time. This means both jugglers do the same thing at different times.
So the staggered chart has 2 passes, each juggler lifting from 3 objects to 5 objects.
5.5p5.5p333  55.5p5.5p3333  555.5p5.5p33333  5555.5p5.5p333333  55555.5p5.5p3333333  555555.5p5.5p33333333 
5p5p33  55p5p333  555p5p3333  5555p5p33333  55555p5p333333  555555p5p3333333 
4.5p4.53p  54.5p4.5p33  554.5p4.5p333  5554.55p4.5p3333  55554.55p4.5p33333  555554.55p4.5p333333 
4p4p  54p4p3  554p4p33  5554p4p333  55554p4p3333  555554p4p33333 
53.5p3.5p  553.5p3.5p3  5553.5p3.5p33  55553.5p3.5p333  555553.5p3.5p3333  
553p3p  5553p3p3  55553p3p33  555553p3p333 
We started learning the patterns above with rings so as not to have to deal with spin. The ones we found easiest to start with where the longer versions of ……4p4p….. With these you have time to steady your 5 object pattern before having to throw out. However if you find five difficult perhaps the shorter patterns are easier. With clubs we started with 54p4p3 with the 5 a triple and the 4s doubles. We also do the above long pass with the fives as doubles.
So back to the charts, here are the two 9 object charts In the first chart
each juggler alternates between 4 and 5 object patterns while in the second
it is between 3 and 6 object patterns.
9 objects 1 pass
6.5p4444  56.5p44444  556.5p444444  5556.5p4444444  55556.5p44444444  555556.5p444444444 
6p444  56p4444  556p44444  5556p444444  55556p4444444  555556p44444444 
5.5p44  55.5p444  555.5p4444  5555.5p44444  55555.5p444444  555555.5p4444444 
5p4  55p44  555p444  5555p4444  55555p44444  555555p444444 
4.5p  54.5p4  554.5p44  5554.5p444  55554.5p4444  555554.5p44444 
54p  554p4  5554p44  55554p444  555554p4444  
553.5p  5553.5p4  55553.5p44  555553.5p444  
5553p  55553p4  555553p44 
9 objects 3 passes
6.5p6.5p6.5p3333  66.5p6.5p6.5p33333  666.5p6.5p6.5p333333  6666.5p6.5p6.5p3333333  66666.5p6.5p6.5p33333333 
6p6p6p333  66p6p6p3333  666p6p6p33333  6666p6p6p333333  66666p6p6p3333333 
5.5p5.5p5.5p33  65.5p5.5p5.5p333  665.5p5.5p5.5p3333  6665.5p5.5p5.5p33333  66665.5p5.5p5.5p333333 
5p5p5p3  65p5p5p33  665p5p5p333  6665p5p5p3333  66665p5p5p33333 
4.5p4.5p4.5p  64.5p4.5p4.5p3  664.5p4.5p4.5p33  6664.5p4.5p4.5p333  66664.5p4.5p4.5p3333 
64p4p4p  664p4p4p3  6664p4p4p33  66664p4p4p333  
663.5p3.5p3.5p  6663.5p3.5p3.5p3  66663.5p3.5p3.5p33  
6663p3p3p  66663p3p3p3 
We haven't yet managed the 3 pass versions with clubs. I would love to see them!
Notice that for now we are just listing popcorns where the lowest amount of objects juggled is 3. There are however popcorns which go from 2 objects to 4 objects, from 0 to 6 or indeed any combination that you care to think of!
Earlier we changed the classic popcorn from 53 to 44. We can now do the opposite and replace any series of throws by their siteswap equivalent. So for example classic popcorn has 3 selfs (siteswap 3) throws which we can replace by any period 3 siteswap. Ie 522, 441, 531, 342…
The other fun thing one can do is synchopate the passes as well. So for example 334p4p55 can become 335p3p55!
And last but not least you can apply the principle of late and early passes that one does in 4 count passing. So in classic popcorn 444p333 one of the jugglers can do 45p3333. In club passing this could be a crossing triple pass.
Up to now we have only considered patterns that leave ground state and return to ground state. There are off course a whole family of patterns where this is not the case. For example one can draw up the chart of popcorns that go from 3 shower to 4 shower. The problem is that we cannot do this without transition throws. The resulting patterns are very interesting but lack the qualities that I would call popcorn. To clarify I would redefine popcorns as going from ground state to ground state. This implies that contrary to what one might think not all passing patterns are popcorns. Next article we will look more in detail at what we mean as ground state as well as all kinds of hybrid popcorns.
I hope that you will find some interesting patterns to play with in the ideas above.
Thanks for Wolfgang Westerboer, JiBe and Jon SkjerningRasmussen for their help writing this article.
See the following part, Popcorns
II: asymmetry, synchronicity and more people
Download a ZIP archive with popcorn
patterns for JoePass!.
An extended version of this article including all the charts can be found at
www.gandinijuggling.com
Jack Boyce's passing notation http://juggleanim.sourceforge.net/doc/notation.html
Christophe Prechac's extremely technical but very interesting pages, See particularly
his article on generating all symmetric passing patterns from 2 handed siteswaps.
http://pogo5.free.fr/juggling/mhn&causal.html
Wolfgang Westerboers fantastic passing animator http://www.koelnvention.de/software/index.html
Takeaway Patterns  Top 
Author: Sean Gandini
Credits: Kaskade 52
These are a group of fun 3object twoperson patterns. I will describe them
as ball patterns but obviously they work for all the standard objects. The basic
concept behind takeaway patterns is the replacement of hands within a juggling
pattern. That's it. One person juggles, the other takes some or all of the pattern
away. Hence the name "takeaway".
The first bunch of patterns are just cyclic replacements. By this, I mean patterns
that repeat in nice concise loops, like pop music. You juggle for three beats,
I juggle for three beats, then we start all over again.
In traditional group juggling these cycles tended to be quite straightforward.
Cycles of 2, 3 or 4 throws. We have pushed it further by generalising. Our generalisation
is that on any given beat there can be a replacement; so the replacing need
not happen as neatly or as regularly as described above. But more of that later.
A word on positions: Contrary to the Kama Sutra and for simplicity's sake we
will limit ourselfs to a simple number of positions. Obviously you can extrapolate
at will.
In an idealised scenario the balls stay in place and the hands weave around
them. This is easier said than done. There is a tendency to give the balls to
the taker. In this respect a clarity of counts is very useful. One of the most
common drops on takeaways is not being sure if the other person is taking or
not, "the hovering hands". Help your partner by being as clear as
you can.
Side by side.
Let's assume that the two jugglers are standing (sitting, lying) side by side. Illustration 1. Our jugglers are called Rachid and Shamira. In the simplest possible scenario Rachid juggles 3 objects. At any point Shamira can replace either of Rachid's hands. If one thinks of the 3 balls as independent from the hands, then any landing ball can be caught by any of the free hands. Think for a moment of a juggling pattern as floating in space. There are two points where the hands meet the balls, it is at those points that the replacing can happen. For simplicity's sake we shall begin by replacing right with right and left with left. By this I mean that a ball thrown from a left hand will always be caught by a right hand and vice versa. Whether this hand is mine, yours, the pope's or a zebra's is unimportant. This restriction is purely for simplicity and to provisionally limit the amount of patterns involved. As we shall see later we can lift the restriction to generate a whole other family of patterns.
3/3 Out
Let's start by learning 3/3. The notation 3/3 means that each juggler catches
three times. So we get a 6 beat cycle that goes:
For simplicity's sake we will also refer to the two closest hands as inside
hands and the two furtheraway hands as outside hands. (Illustration 1).
Rachid starts with 2 Balls in the Right Hand and 1 Ball in the Left Hand. He
throws the first ball from his right hand to Shamira's outside hand. (Illustration
2). She then takes the second ball with her inside hand (Illustration 3) followed
by the third ball with her the outside hand (Illustration 4). Three catches
in all.
Rachid then does the same, his outside hand followed by his inside hand followed
by his outside hand (Illustrations 5,6,7). And so on ad infinitum (or not).
This pattern is quite instinctive to most westerners. Remember that you always
take away from the outside hand first. If you colour code the balls you will
always end up with the same balls in the same hands in the same order. So if
you start by taking a mauve ball with your outside hand, both of you will take
the mauve ball as your first ball with your outside hand. Now what could be
easier? You take the balls and you give them straight back.
Although this pattern is easy to do without counting I would encourage you to
start by counting it. The more you count now the easier it will be not to count
later.
3/3 In
Same idea only the inside hands take first. This is a lot harder. You have to
reach right across your partner. The colour coding works as well. As you learn
this pattern you will find that there is a pleasant weaving that begins to happen
between the inside hands. (Illustrations 8, 9, 10)
5/5 Out
This is very similar to the above but one waits longer between takings. The
extra wait is what makes this pattern slightly tricky for most people. On the
other hand one has longer to steady the pattern. This is a very useful pattern
for learning odd counts. Needless to say the initial colour coding is no longer
valid.
5/5 In
Included for thoroughness. Same as 3/3 in but with two extra juggling beats.
2/2
Now things start to get interesting but tricky. What is odd about this one is
that once the pattern gets going you end up catching your own first ball. It
really helps to slow this down as much as you can. Take each throw one at a
time and count it out loud. Note that both jugglers do slightly different things.
One does Inside Hand followed by Outside Hand whilst the other does Outside
Hand followed by Inside Hand. This pattern is not symmetrical. By this I mean
that you get a different pattern if Shamira starts from the one you would get
if Rachid started. (Illustrations 1115)
1/1 Out
Outside hand to outside hand is what is usually called a share. It is simply
a shared 3 ball cascade. This is one of the most common 2 person juggling patterns.
(Illustration 16)
1/1 In
The other 1/1 pattern, Inside hand to inside Hand, is wonderfully different
and seldom seen. (Illustration 17)
4/4
I think by this point it becomes selfexplanatory. This is more of the same.
The two jugglers do different things. The second version reverses the jugglers'
roles.
11/11
Medicine for the counting ill.
Asymmetry
We've been doing patterns of the a/a variety. Needless to say we could go on
forever although perhaps this would be pointless. I would nonetheless recommend
playing with some different counts: 6/6, 7/7, 8/8… 134/134 great for taking
turns at cooking the evening meal. But needless to say the two numbers don't
need to be the same, so:
3/2
Rachid catches twice followed by Shamira catching three times. If you practised
2/2 and 3/3 then this pattern is a cut and paste between the two. Contrary to
all the other previously encountered patterns this pattern cycles through its
2 states. By this I mean that the second time you go and grab the balls you
will begin with a different hand. It takes ten throws(or catches) to get back
to the beginning.
So for example Rachid alternates between Right, Left and Left, Right, between
Inside/Outside and Outside/Inside. Shamira alternates between R L R and L R
L, O I O and I O I.
I think that by now you can work these things out, but here are some other fun
combinations:
2/1
One version of this pattern is a real standard although it is usually done one
juggler behind the other. The juggler juggling the 1 ends up throwing it back
and forth to herself.
The other version is rather delightfully unexpected and gives some interesting
hand weaving.
4/3
Straightforward.
5/3, 4/2, 11/3 and so on ad infinitum.
More Complexity
Let's go further by adding one more segment.
3/3/2
Rachid does 3 catches, Shamira does 3 catches, Rachid does 2 catches and it
starts all over again with the roles reversed, Shamira does 3 catches, Rachid
does 3 catches Shamira does 2 catches and we are right back to where we started.
The pattern has three segments and two jugglers so each juggler will end up
doing every part of the pattern. This pattern can hurt the mind.
3/2/1
I found this particularly difficult to learn.
2/2/1 and 2/1/1
These are total brain melters, monitor how long it is before you can have a
conversation at the same time.
5/3/1, 2/3/1, 11/2/124 or 2/1/2/3 or 4/17/2/124
Needless to say you can add as many segments as you desire.
Different Positions (Illustration 18)
Some of these positions are illegal in some countries.
The above is an extract from the leaflet for the Patterns video which contains all of the above plus a lot more and is available from Gandini Video Productions at £17.50 + £2,50 p&p.
Popcorns II: asymmetry, synchronicity and more people  Top 
Author: Sean Gandini
Credits: Kaskade 70
See the previous part, Popcorns
I
Download a ZIP archive with popcorn
patterns for JoePass!.
For this article we shall assume that you have read last issues' article. Last time we looked at 2 person symmetric popcorns. This time round lets look at some different kinds of popcorns and how one expands the popcorn idea to more people. Again even though the article is very notation heavy and slightly theoretical it is very much rooted in real world juggling patterns. I highly recommend downloading Joe pass and the files for a lot of these patterns. Ok so here we go:
Up to now we have assumed that both jugglers lift into the same amount of objects.
This is not always necessarily the case. We can build popcorns where both jugglers
lift into different amounts. Lets imagine for example that you want juggler
one to lift into 5 objects and juggler two to lift into 4 objects. This would
be a 1 pass 8 object popcorn. We obviously won't do the charts for all of the
possible asymmetric patterns but for reference below is part of the 8 object
asymmetric 4/5 popcorn.
554.5p44444444.5p333  
4p444p  54p44444p3  554p4444444p33  5554p444444444p333 
53.5p4443.5p  553.5p444443.5p3  5553.5p44444443.5p33  
553p44443p 
554p4444444p33
Note that we now need to show both passers roles since the pattern is asymmetric.
Note also that the pattern 554p4444444p33 illustrated above should strickly
speaking be written as 554p4444p333444; that is the second part of the pattern
starts on the pass. We find that for the purposes of this article and to illustrate
the particularities of popcorns the notation we have chosen is clearer.
There is also a whole family of patterns which have the jugglers lifting into the same amount of objects but holding their patterns for different amounts of time. So there is a further expansion of each pattern in the original symmetric charts which involves elongating the numbers on one side whilst shortening the numbers on the other side. So for example below is the expansion of the classic popcorn into its 3 mutations.
444p333  44p33334444p33  4p3333344444p3 
444p333
44p33334444p33
4p3333344444p3
Every pattern can be mutated this way. In fact we can combine the two procedures above to generate a third family, popcorns of different lengths and different amount of objects. Lets look at the mutations of 554p4444444p33 a pattern which we met before:
555554p4p33333  55554p444p3333  5554p44444p333  554p4444444p33  54p444444444p3 
It is also possible to progressively lift into a given pattern. For example
if we take the 8 object 2 pass popcorn: 554p4p33,
the jugglers take turns at lifting from 3 to 5 objects. We can stagger the lifting
by separating the passes. So lets look at the pattern 554p4p33 which we met
in the 8 object 2 pass chart last issue. So by inserting some 4s the pattern
becomes:
554p44p334,
the bold 4s are the inserted 4s.
then 554p444p3344 and so on and so forth. So essentially any popcorn pattern with more than 1 pass can be progressive!
554p44p334  554p444p3344  554p4444p33444  554p44444p334444 
Needless to say we can use the staggering procedure that we met above to make the patterns asymmetrical.
Ok so what happens if there are more jugglers involved. Once again we shall only look at patterns where all jugglers do the same thing at different times. Spatially the jugglers can stand wherever they want, for practical reasons however the easiest way to juggle these patterns in a triangle or a line formation.
So lets look at 3 jugglers with 10 objects. Here each juggler will take turns
at lifting from 3 objects to 4 objects.
Below is the chart expanded in the same way as the 2 person chart.
Here the chart increases Horizontally by adding a 4 on the left side of the
pass and 2 x 3 on the other side.
It increases Vertically by adding 0.3 to the pass.
5p33333  45p3333333  445p333333333  4445p33333333333  44445p3333333333333  444445p333333333333333 
4.6p3333  44.6p333333  444.6p33333333  4444.6p3333333333  44444.6p333333333333  444444.6p33333333333333 
4.3p333  44.3p33333  444.3p3333333  4444.3p333333333  44444.3p33333333333  444444.3p3333333333333 
4p33  44p3333  444p333333  4444p33333333  44444p3333333333  444444p333333333333 
3.6p3  43.6p333  443.6p33333  4443.6p3333333  44443.6p333333333  444443.6p33333333333 
3.3p  43.3p33  443.3p3333  4443.3p333333  44443.3p33333333  444443.3p3333333333 
43p3  443p333  4443p33333  44443p3333333  444443p333333333 
Again note that the column on the left side of the chart has the 1count, 2count, 3count, 4count…patterns.
Lets now look at 11 object 3 person popcorns. There are 1 pass and 2 pass versions of this. Below is the 1 pass version.
6.3p3333  446.3p33333  44446.3p333333  4444446.3p3333333  444444446.3p33333333 
5.6p333  445.6p3333  44445.6p33333  4444445.6p333333  444444445.6p3333333 
5p33  445p333  44445p3333  4444445p33333  444444445p333333 
4.3p3  444.3p33  44444.3p333  4444444.3p3333  444444444.3p33333 
3.6p  443.6p3  44443.6p33  4444443.6p333  444444443.6p3333 
443p  44443p3  4444443p33  444444443p333 
For fun lets look at a small selection from the 4 person charts:
Below is the 13 object 1 pass charts. The chart increases vertically by adding 0.25 to the pass and horizontally by adding one 4 on one side and 3 x 3 on the other.
5p3333333  45p3333333333  445p333333333333  4445p33333333333333 
4.75p333333  44.75p333333333  444.75p333333333333  4444.75p3333333333333 
4.5p33333  44.5p33333333  444.5p33333333333  4444.5p333333333333 
4.25p3333  44.25p3333333  444.25p3333333333  4444.25p33333333333 
4p333  44p333333  444p333333333  4444p3333333333 
3.75p33  43.75p33333  443.75p33333333  4443.75p333333333 
3.5p3  43.5p3333  443.5p3333333  4443.5p33333333 
3.25p  43.25p333  443.25p333333  4443.25p3333333 
The 14 object chart for 4 jugglers, is the same as the 7 object chart for 2
juggler so it has not been included.
All the 2 person charts can be transformed into 4 person charts by doubling
the jugglers and the amount of objects.
If you have got this far with me then you can imagine how to construct charts for more jugglers.
Essentially one can draw the same kind of charts as the asynchronous popcorns. However things get slightly complicated. We mentioned in the last article that we defined popcorns as jugglers juggling a certain amount of objects in ground state and lifting/descending into a different amount of objects still in ground state.
If a lone juggler jugglers 4 objects asynchronously there is only one way of staying in ground state, that is throwing 4s. This is not the case for synchronous 4. One can throw (4,4) or (4x,4x), two different ways of staying ground state. For odd numbers of balls there are 4 different ways of staying ground state.
What this basically means is that every pattern has numerous equivalent versions.
However bearing this in mind the chart process still works. Below are examples
of the various charts.
7 Objects:
(4,5p)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)  (4,4)(4,4p)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)  (4,4)(4,4)(4,4p)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)  (4,4)(4,4)(4,4)(4,4p)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)(4x,2x) 
(4,4p)(4x,2x)  (4,4)(4,4p)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)  (4,4)(4,4)(4,4p)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)  (4,4)(4,4)(4,4)(4,4p)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)(4x,2x) 
(4,3p)  (4,4)(4,3p)(4x,2x)  (4,4)(4,4)(4,3p)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)  (4,4)(4,4)(4,4)(4,3p)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)(4x,2x) 
And for fun:
9 Objects:
(7p,4)(4,4)(4,4)  (4x,6x)(7p,4)(4,4)(4,4)(4,4)  (4x,6x)(7p,4)(4,4)(4,4)(4,4) 
(6p,4)(4,4)  (4,6x)(6p,4)(4,4)(4,4)  (6x,4)(4,6x)(6p,4)(4,4)(4,4)(4,4) 
(5p,4x)  (4,6x)(5p,4x)(4,4)  (4,6x)(5p,4x)(4,4) 
(4,6x) (4p,4x)  (4,6x) (4p,4)(4,4) 
So needless to say we can make the synchronous charts for more jugglers.
Below is the chart for 3 jugglers and 10 objects.
(6p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)  (4,4)(6p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)  2 times (4,4)(5.3p,4) 9 times (2x,4x) 
(5.3p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)  (4,4)(5.3p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)  2 times (4,4)(5.3p,4) 8 times (2x,4x) 
(4.6p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)  (4,4)(4.6p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)  (4,4)(4,4)(4.6p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x) 
(4p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)  (4,4)(4p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)  (4,4)(4,4)(4p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x) 
(3.3p,4)(2x,4x)  (4,4)(3.3p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)  (4,4)(4,4)(3.3p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x) 
One can of course combine the above ideas. So you can use the above as a cookbook and make your own recipes. For example you might enjoy making 3 person progressive synchronous asymmetric popcorns. One can combine synchronous and asynchronous patterns.
So too finish an 3 person asymmetric 11 object popcorn with one juggler lifting from 3 to 4, one juggler lifting form 4 to 5 and one juggler lifting synchronously from 3 to 4.
So that's the end of our exploration of popcorn patterns. I would like once again to stress that these patterns are a lot of fun to juggle. Getting confortable with the notation and the diagrams takes a while but the juggling rewards are huge. I lookforwards to any feedback you might have on these ideas and I hope that you get something out of them.
See the previous part, Popcorns I
Download a ZIP archive with popcorn
patterns for JoePass!.
As an addendum to the last article we would like to add that a 2 person pattern
can be done in several different different ways, depending on the hand throwing
order. So for example the classic 7 object 2 count 4p3 in 4 different ways:
 Both jugglers starting with their rights.
 Both Jugglers starting with their lefts.
 Juggler one starts right and Juggler 2 starts left.
 Juggler one starts left and Juggler 2 starts right.
This is the same for patterns of an even period. Patterns of an odd period have just 2 versions.
Now whereas the 2 person popcorn charts have either 2 or 4 different hand arrangements, the 3 person patterns have 4 or 8 different possibilities. So choosing the easiest or most convenient way of juggling a particular patterns will not always be easy. I suggest trying different possibilities using intuition to guide you.
An extended version of this articles including all the charts and files for
joe pass can be found at http://www.gandinijuggling.com/popcorns.htm
New Passing site on the internet www.passingdb.com
has many films of patterns relevant to this article.
Wolfgang Westerboers fantastic passing animator http://www.koelnvention.de/software/index.html
For an understanding of states: Mark Thomas http://www.markthomasonline.co.uk/state.html
Never Look Away  Top 
Author: Wolfgang Westerboer
Credits: Kaskade 56
The illustrations are taken from Charlie Dancey's great book, the Compendium of Club Juggling, and the title is the first of his three "Golden Rules of Club Passing" (by kind permission of the author). 
What is more important when passing: throwing or catching? Think about this before reading on.
For me, both are equally important. Somebody has to catch my throw  either my partner or myself. If the throw is sloppy, it will be difficult to catch, which means that the pattern will get shaky and may collapse altogether. I reckon jugglers in general don't pay enough attention to their passing throws and just accept that their partner is going to have to work hard to catch them. Who cares, they think, as long as the pattern keeps going somehow. Which is OK as far as it goes, I suppose, but it looks terrible.
Let's kick off with a pattern that's simple yet interesting and offers lots of scope for variations. And one that not everybody thinks they can already do easily.
2 jugglers throw 5 clubs,
A always throws across (cross throws)
B always throws straight ("tramlines"),
Every club is passed, i.e. all left and right throws are passes, not selfthrows (1count or "ultimate" passing)
Start:
A holds 2 clubs in the right hand, 1 club in the left,
B holds 1 club in the right hand, 1 club in the left
Both throw with the right hand first
A and B throw alternately: B throws exactly between A's throws.
The rhythm is perfectly even: throw, catch, throw, catch,...
This pattern is relatively easy to follow, so both partners have time to concentrate
on everything: Am I getting the rhythm, the direction and the spin right? How
is my throwing technique? Is my body posture OK? etc.
We've made a habit of starting our passing sessions with this pattern to get
used to each other's styles. And it's a really good exercise for rightandleft
passing (see P 6).
Note:
Be careful not to go too slow. You shouldn't have the feeling that there's a
pause in the pattern. Try throwing flats (throws with no spins)  that will
speed things up automatically.
The rhythm here is similar to the singlespin version (P 1), except that everything gets higher and slower.
The sequence is totally even: throw, pause,...
Everything else is as in P 1
This pause gives you time to do things like pirouettes and somersaults, or let someone else take over your clubs and your position...
After you've been experimenting for a while, you'll probably notice that there
are other ways of throwing doubles. One is to delay the throw, which feels like
this:
Throw, pause, pause,...
Otherwise, everything stays as in P 1
Your own pass just about slips past the incoming club from your partner.
The two pauses can now be filled in with whatever moves you have time for (see
above). However, the difficulty with this pattern is that you tend to fall back
into P 2. To counteract this tendency, you can juggle a 2club shower while
waiting for your partner's pass to arrive: double pass, single self, hand across.
The pass from your partner lands in the hand that does not catch the self. You
could both do this at the same time, though at first it's probably better if
you take it in turns. Important: practise the shower on both sides, not just
one  the pattern is much easier if the juggling is continuous.
The pattern only works if both partners maintain the right rhythm. The partner
throwing across should make sure that the throws don't fly like propellers,
a typical mistake when passing diagonally (watch out for this on P 5 and P 6
too).
If you can keep the rhythm going without the minishower, you have time for
other things. For example, you could do a couple of flourishes (twirling the
club in your hand). The problem here is that to do a flourish you have to catch
the pass with the club the other way up. In other words, the thumb of your catching
hand should be pointing down and your elbow out to the side. The cross pass
is easier to catch like this than the tramline pass.
Note:
If you throw at "normal" speed, the pass throws go much higher than
a normal single pass or the self when you squeeze in the 2club shower. To be
precise, they should be the same height as the throws in 7 clubs 1 count.
Alternatively, one of the partners could throw singles and the other doubles.
In this case, both partners start at the same time (more difficult).
These patterns are great for throwing "at random", meaning that you don't always have to stick to your role as a tramline or cross passer, but can choose to throw to your partner's "wrong" hand for a change. This is great fun, but both partners have to be wide awake.
Most people know the box pattern with balls: throw straight up on the right,
simultaneously hand across from left to right, straight up on the left, simultaneously
hand across from right to left.
Here is a 5club passing pattern based on this technique:
Both partners throw straight ("tramlines")
A throws doubles, B throws singles
A juggles the box, B juggles in the same rhythm as in P 2
Start:
A: 2 clubs in the right hand, 1 in the left
B: 1 club in the right, 1 in the left
Start out of synch, i.e. B passes around the incoming club
A always hands the same club across between passes.
Notes:
B can incorporate a minishower or something similar (see Pattern 3). A's rhythm
is too tight for that.
Both jugglers can throw to the same height if B starts a bit earlier than usual
(but still later than A). In that case, both throw high singles or low doubles.
You don't have to throw tramlines: both can throw either always cross passes
or always tramlines, but you can't mix, sometimes cross passes, sometimes tramlines.
With this pattern it's particularly important to keep cool, juggle slowly and
throw accurately.
2 jugglers with 7 clubs,
A throws every club straight (tramlines)
B throws every club across
Start:
A: 2 clubs in the right hand, 2 in the left,
B: 1 club in the right hand, 2 in the left
A and B both start with a throw from the right.
A typical problem with this pattern is that people try to throw "normal"
singles. It is possible, but it's incredibly fast. If you prefer things to be
more relaxed, try throwing the clubs at a height somewhere between double and
single, i.e. roughly head height.
Reread the note on Patterns 2 and 3, and especially try Pattern 3 to get a feeling
for the height. Take a look ahead to Pattern 6 too.
This 6club pattern is an excellent exercise to prepare for 7 clubs 1 count.
2 jugglers pass 6 clubs
A always passes across, B always passes straight (tramlines)
Both throw in a pass pass self rhythm
A throws a passing box: pass, pass, hand across
Start:
A: 1 club in the right hand, 2 in the left
B: 1 club in the right hand, 2 in the left
To start with, A can pass doubles and B singles. The start sequence is then
as follows: A goes pass, pass, hand across; B goes self, pass, pass. Both throw
with the right hand first.
However, it's easier if both partners throw to the same height. A throws lower,
B throws higher, both roughly to head height (see notes on Pattern 3). As B
now has to start earlier, she might as well start with pass, pass, self with
the left hand as soon as the first pass from A is in the air. The result is
a calm passing pattern in which the passes go to exactly the same height as
in 7 clubs 1 count, except that this time both partners do a self, which makes
things easier to control.
Some of you might want to point out that some of the patterns presented here
cannot be true 1 counts  and you would be right. Even though we talk about
1 counts throughout, in fact we've been describing patterns that range from
1 count to 3 count, as you might have noticed when we varied Pattern 2 to make
Pattern 3. The background: many of the patterns described here contain "throws"
that are in fact pauses  the club is not released but held. Often you don't
notice it while juggling, which is why a pattern appears to have fewer selfthrows,
or none at all. But if you know about the hidden (nonthrown) self, you can
easily construct patterns in which, for example, one partner throws twice while
the other throws 3 times.
Here's a quote from Charlie's book on the Seven Club One Count: This is a
very unusual Passing Pattern  one of the very few in the Compendium of Club
Juggling that uses half beats. All of the patterns presented here (except
P 2) involve both partners throwing passes that can be the same height or they
can be at different heights. In P 1 A passes a 2 and B passes a 3, or both passes
are equivalent to 2.5. In all of the other patterns, one partner passes a 3
and the other a 4, or both pass a 3.5. To throw to the same height, one partner
must throw slightly early  to be precise, one halfbeat early.
Never Say Sorry  Top 
Author: Wolfgang Westerboer
Credits: Kaskade 58
(Illustration from: Charlie Dancey's Compendium of Club Juggling, p. 90, "Golden Rules of Club Passing", by kind permission of the author.) 
Usually when you juggle you throw alternately, first with the right hand,
then with the left hand, or vice versa. Occasionally you might even throw with
both hands simultaneously. There are not many patterns in which the same hand
throws several times in succession. Yet those patterns can really add a touch
of spice to your juggling. The term "hurries" has come to be generally
accepted for these moves, for reasons which will become obvious when you first
try them. After a while, though, you can learn to calm things down a bit. And
for most hurries there is also a variation that involves both hands throwing
alternately as usual. More about that in the Theory section, which also contains
some notes on the site swaps. But let's begin with the practical side. I've
described the tricks in considerable detail and drawn causal diagrams to make
it easier for you to get into the patterns and the causal diagrams.
To enable the same hand to throw twice in succession, it has to catch two clubs
in succession. In all of the patterns described in this series so far, that
doesn't happen. Why not? Because both jugglers dutifully throw to the hand whose
turn it is to catch next. But what if this order is broken? Take P7 from Part
2 of the series, for example: the 6 club 3count. Most of you will have tried
this out in the meantime. It helps a lot to use a different colour for the clubs
that get passed to distinguish them from the selfclubs. It's always the same
club that gets passed diagonally, and always the same club that gets passed
straight.
<3px 3* 33px 3* 3>
Here is a variation on that pattern: Juggler A passes with the right hand 
but for the sake of devilment, she doesn't pass straight to B's left hand but
diagonally to B's right hand. For A, nothing has changed so far, but B now has
a problem. This shows up clearly in the causal diagram: the first pass from
A (top line) goes from right to right and forces B to throw twice with his right
hand  first a pass and then immediately afterwards a self. As a consequence,
each juggler now throws with opposite hands: A left, B right, etc. The revenge
for A's deed comes a few throws later, when she suddenly gets a club thrown
back at her wrong hand (see Fig. 13)
If you're superstitious, you'll find the numbering of this trick highly appropriate:
it just refuses to work, because both throw the following pass on the same side
of the pattern, A with the left, B with the right, increasing the likelihood
of collisions.
<3p 3 3 3px 3 3 3px 3* 33p 3 3 3p 3* 3 3p 3 3>
To make life easier for both of you, A decides to throw another diagonal pass,
this time left to left. That gets you back into the normal 3count.
As you can see from the causal diagram, the Hurries are equally divided between
the two jugglers after the two passes: the first is B's problem, the second
is A's. After that, both can throw in the normal 3count pattern. This ends
our first (successful?) expedition to the world of the Hurries.
<3px 3 3 3px 3* 3  3p 3* 3 3p 3 3>
This is surely the most famous pattern of the outgoing 20th century. It is
nothing other than P14, but without a break. This is a real rightleft pattern
with Hurries for both. Try it, it's really not as difficult as you think. (The
other day we managed it during a "rightleft passing for beginners"
workshop.)
After the first diagonal pass from A the passes are always thrown twice in succession
from the same hand, i.e.: right pass, left pass, left pass, right pass. Of course,
there are also a number selfs in between, but they would only have got in the
way if I'd included them here.
The diagram (Fig. 15) shows only the first half of the pattern. As the hands
are swapped around at the end of P14, the second part of the pattern is simply
a mirror image of the first half.
<3px 3 3 3p 3 3  3p 3* 3 3px 3* 3>
Another way of getting out of the problem you've created for yourselfs in P13: A and B always pass diagonally in alternation. Then all the Hurries are at B's end. A passes with both hands to B's right hand. B only passes with his right hand, alternating between straight and diagonal throws.
<4x* 2* 3px  3 3 3p>
This is another pattern in which one juggler is lumbered with all the Hurries. B "forces himself" to throw a Hurry (unlike P13, in which it was A who forced her partner into the Hurry). B begins with a double from the right, immediately after a pass. Doubles normally go to the same hand, but he throws this one to his left hand, causing the problem for himself  in a few moments this club is going to land in his wrong hand. Before that happens, B simply waits. In the causal diagram you'll notice that the arrow from the left hand points back to the same hand, which simply means: keep hold of the club. But then the double from the right has to be caught  with the left hand. And that is also where the pass from A is about to land. So B has to empty that left hand as quickly as possible. He can't pass straight ahead (because the pass from A is winging its way in, see P13), so he has to pass diagonally (see P14). Again, this pattern can be repeated continually without a break.
<4p 3 3 4p 3* 3 4p 3 3 3 5px 3 3 5px 3 3 5px 3*>
In the normal 7club 3count one juggler passes straight and the other passes diagonally. However, now B, who should be passing straight, decides to throw all passes diagonally. This naturally creates Hurries, which are equally distributed between the two partners. Even so, the pattern is somewhat unbalanced in the sense that one hand passes more often than the other. Which hand does more passing depends, of course, on how you start. What better way of exercising your weaker hand? As in P15, the causal diagram shows only the first half of the pattern.
Notes on the diagrams:
In part 2 of this workshop series the causal diagrams did not indicate which
hand is throwing. This is now essential, however, whereas there is no longer
any need to indicate whether a throw is a single, a double, or a whateverelse
 that naturally follows from the length of the arrow (see part 2, A Causal
Puzzle).
Following Martin Frost's suggestion (in Jugglers World, Summer 1994) I have
marked the Hurries with an asterisk *.
Mathematicians reading this article will probably have torn out all their hair by now. Each of the socalled site swaps contains a few special characters to denote whether the same hand throws again (indicated by *) or whether a pass should be diagonal instead of straight (x). This doesn't have much to do with the good old site swap notation in its classic form. Instead, I have noted down what you think you're throwing. I'd be happy to answer any questions on this subject by email (see address at the end of this article). If enough readers would be interested, I could go into the background in more detail in the next Kaskade.
For many Hurries there are variations which do without Hurries. You simply
insert a hold (a 2 in site swap) between the Hurries and adjust the length of
the other throws accordingly. Thus, a Hurry with the right hand disappears in
a hold with the left and a throw from the right. As a consequence, diagonal
passes have even site swap numbers. Take a look at P15. A throws diagonally,
her passes are therefore 4p; B throws straight, which is 3p. If the holds are
now inserted and the Hurries removed, the pattern becomes:
<4p 3 3 4p 2 3 3  3p 2 3 3 3p 3 3>
To ensure that both partners throw to the same height, A delays her throws by
half a beat (see part 1 of this workshop series), and both pass to a height
of 3.5. This pattern is only half as much fun, though, because the Hurries are
missing.
Here's a question to wrestle over: In which of the patterns can you not get
rid of the Hurry using this method?
On the Causal Puzzle:
Lay the pattern onto the basic puzzle framework you kept from part 2 of this
workshop. Note in pencil which hand is throwing. I'm not going to recommend
using a ballpoint pen because I don't get a cut from the sales of Kaskade or
the revenues of your copy shop.
References:
Charley Dancey, Compendium of Club Juggling, ISBN 1898591 14 8
Jugglers World, Summer 1994
Jugglers World, Fall 1997
Just the three of us  Top 
Author: Wolfgang Westerboer
Credits: Kaskade 59
The illustrations are taken from Charlie Dancey's Compendium of Club Juggling, p. 187, by kind permission of the author. 
So far this workshop series has covered passing patterns for two jugglers
only. Now it's time to add some variety by looking at patterns involving more
than two. More people mean more choices of where to pass to.
This article is divided into two parts. First of all, I list the most common
formations for deciding who passes to whom, and where to stand. To keep it simple,
these descriptions all involve 3 people juggling a total of 9 clubs.
The second part gives an overview of various patterns using these basic formations.
As always, there's a causal diagram to go with each pattern.
If there's a feeder (see below), that juggler's throws are always noted in the middle line. In the diagrams, the feeder is always juggler B. The person who dictates the rhythm is printed bolder in the diagrams, causals and siteswaps.
The classic pattern for 3 jugglers is the Feed. In a feed, one juggler, the feeder, distributes passes to 2 partners, the feedees, whereas both feedees pass only to the feeder. As a rule, that means that the feeder passes twice as often as the feedees. As the feedees cannot see each other, their best bet for keeping the rhythm is to keep pace with the feeder. The typical feeding configuration is shown in Figure 1. 
See Figure 2. In contrast to the feed, all the jugglers in a Triangle pass at the same time, e.g. they could all throw to the partner on their right, along the "outside lane" of the triangle. Or they could pass "inside" to the partner on the left (this feels very confusing at first, because somebody else's clubs suddenly pop up in front of your nose). Or they could alternate right and left  ouch! The pattern starts with everyone doing the old "updownpass" ritual in synch. What makes triangles a bit tricky is that you receive a club from one side while you're passing to the other side. I've trained myself to look first in the direction of the incoming club and then to look where my own pass went. Maybe then at least next time I can manage not to throw straight at my partner's head. If you're doing a 3count in a triangle, the clubs that are passed always stay on the same path: a club passed on the outside always comes back on the same outside lane. 
Looking at Figure 3, you might get the impression that the Line isn't much different from a triangle. And indeed, the jugglers have "only" positioned themselfs differently. But it's not quite that simple. The juggler in the middle finds it very hard to catch passes from the partner standing behind  trying can be painful, but succeeding looks great! The juggler in the middle passes blind, throwing the clubs back over his shoulder. The partner at the back has to tell the one in the middle where to throw to. Whether the club goes over to the left or the right of the middle juggler's head is almost irrelevant  it's primarily a matter of taste. A nice variation is where the middle juggler turns round to pass to the other partner  but it's not easy and has to be announced in advance as both of the other jugglers have to adjust their passes accordingly. Again, the juggler who dictates the rhythm is printed bold. 
The other day at a convention, somewhat spaced out after the usual nocturnal, insomniactivities, I was wandering around the gym at 12 in the morning when a thought came to me: Why do jugglers always throw clubs, but clubs never throw jugglers? Here's an idea: how about a passing sequence in which you switch from one formation to another, without stopping of course. A few throws in the feed position, then into a triangle, then transition to a line, then back to a triangle, then you all throw one club high, carry the others to your partner's position and catch the club that your partner threw. In other words, passing jugglers instead of clubs. Alternatively, you could put the clubs on the floor and swap places, or carry them and hand them over to a partner on the way to your new position. There are some simple patterns involving jugglers moving around and changing places while passing  and also some hellishly complex patterns. There isn't the space to describe them here  instead, I suggest you check them out at your next convention.
I'll confine my descriptions to feeds and triangles, leaving out the line (only because of lack of space). For a detailed descriptions of lines, see Charlie Dancey's Compendium of Club Juggling.
This is the best known feeding pattern. The feeder passes a 2count, the feedees
pass 4count. All start at the same time. The feeder (B) and juggler A begin
with a pass, C begins with a self.
As the feedees have quite a lot of spare time between passes, they can rescue
the pattern if they see that the feeder is in trouble. If he's not in trouble,
they can get him into trouble by doing chops or triples (instead of the right
self). How about one feedee doing only chops, the other doing only triples?!
Again, all start at the same time. However, in contrast to P19 the feedees start
with a self from the left hand. All passes are thrown as doubles. The feeder
throws a "normal" 7 club 2count, but as a feed, passing first to
A, then to C, etc. The feedees pass whenever they see the feeder's pass in midair
coming towards them  in other words, they respond to the feeder's pass. Remember,
the feedees pass doubles too.
A common problem with this pattern is that the passes from the feeder to the
left feedee (from B's point of view) collide with the incoming passes from the
right feedee. This is simply due to limited airspace. If the right feedee throws
a bit higher than usual, the feeder has room to throw his passes underneath.
The title illustration shows what it can look like.
The feedees juggle a waltz, the feeder does a passpassself rhythm. The jugglers
always pass simultaneously: the feeder receives a club from the feedee he's
just passing to. It helps to remember that the clubs are passed back to the
juggler who passed them to you. For the feedees, the pattern is pretty simple,
but the feeder has his work cut out for him. Many feeders find it easier to
start with the feedee on the right. He then throws: outside (pass right), outside
(pass left), self (right), inside (pass left), inside (pass right), self (left).
At the beginning the clubs seem to come fairly chaotically (and painfully) from
all directions, raining down on the poor feeder. After a while, though, you
get a feel for what's going on. It helps to juggle slowly and pass with long
swinging movements.
As mentioned above, the triangle is often thrown as a 3count. All the passes
go alternately to the right partner then to the left partner. Consequently,
each juggler passes to both of the others. To put it another way, all three
of you are feeders! If you start with the right partner, the sequence is: outside
(pass right), self, self, outside (pass left), self, self. Note that you pass
in one direction and receive from the other. You can't see both clubs at the
same time, so take care of yourself and your partners. For a change you could
also try passing only to your right (or only to your left) partner.
Now we're getting down to business! This pattern is a mixture of P21 and P22:
each juggler is feeding a passpassself. Note that each of the jugglers has
a different rhythm: one goes passpassself, one goes passselfpass, and one
goes selfpasspass. Theoretically you could all throw outside, outside, self,
inside, inside, self. But then the passes can easily collide. Don't be put off
by the diagram. The pattern looks complex, but it isn't really all that difficult.
The theoretical part of our workshop this time is fairly concrete  it's about
a feeding pattern and a problem. Let's start with the pattern.
Imagine you're doing P19 when along comes a fourth juggler (D) who wants to
join in. No problem  you reposition yourselfs as shown in Figure 4.
B and C feed  B with C and A, C with B and D. A and D do a 4count. You soon
get the hang of it. It's easiest if the two feeders start with the pass they
throw to each other, and then pass to their respective feedees: B passes first
to C, then to A; C passes first to B, then to D.
Now the problem  again a feeding pattern: The basic pattern is P20, the 10club
feed, and along comes juggler D again. He grabs three clubs and you position
yourself as described above. B and C start, but this time B starts with a pass
and C with a self (see description of P20). It works OK for about three throws,
then D starts complaining that something's going wrong. A doesn't agree. As
far as she's concerned, everything's fine.
In situations like this, D usually gets told to stop moaning  it's his fault,
he must be doing something wrong. After all, if A can do it, why can't D? After
a lot of arguing and more failed attempts, you decide to switch positions, and
now you discover that whoever stands in D's position has a genuine problem.
If D juggles the normal 10club feedee rhythm, the pattern simply cannot work.
What's wrong?
In a 10club feed, the feeder always passes first, and the feedee always responds
with a pass of her own (see P20). You can't simply turn things around and have
the feeder responding to the passes of the feedees, as passes and selfs would
then collide. Or, to be more precise: It is possible, but the feedees have to
change their rhythm. More on that later.
When D joins the group, he passes to C, one of B's feedees. We've just established,
however, that C responds to B's passes, i.e. C passes later than B. In order
for D to fit into the pattern, he has to pass in such a way that C can respond
to his passes too, i.e. D always has to pass before C. That can't be done with
a normal 4count, so D has to "overtake" C.
Here's how he does it. B sets the rhythm and starts with a pass to C; D starts
in with a pass to C at the same time as B throws his first pass to A. Then...
D waits. He simply holds two clubs until the moment when he has to empty his
left hand to catch the incoming pass from C. To do so, he throws a left self
and then a pass to C. (See Charlie Dancey, p. 33: "Double Return".)
That takes quite a long time  if he gets bored, he could do a 2club shower
instead: left self, right handacross, left self, right pass. This gives D's
pattern a clear rhythm (see Part 1 of this workshop series in Kaskade 56). It's
a pity that D can't start the pattern with all the others, but has to wait,
as described above. Here's the siteswap for this one:
< 3 3 3 4:2 4:3 3 4:1 3  3 4:2 3 4:4 1 3 4:3 3 >
Back to the pattern I promised you, in which the feedees pass ahead of the feeder.
After what I've just described, it's quite easy: Take 9 (!) clubs. Both feedees
throw a Double Return, the feeder responds to the incoming passes. <1 3 4:2
3  3 4:3 3 4:1 4:2 3 1 3 >
And to finish off, here is the same thing for 2 jugglers: both pass 4count,
with double spins. B throws a "normal" 4count, A overtakes him with
a 2club shower. < 4:2 3 1 3 3 4:1 3 3>
It only remains to mention that instead of handing the club across, you could
also throw it as a triple (substitute a 5 for the 1 in the siteswaps). For each
substitution, add one club.
References:
Charley Dancey, Compendium of Club Juggling, ISBN 1898591 14 8
Check out the rec.juggling discussion forum. The participants often discuss
new patterns and ideas. Go to conventions. Meet other jugglers. Have fun. ;)
... but you can never hide  Top 
Author: Wolfgang Westerboer
Credits: Kaskade 60
The illustrations are taken from Charlie Dancey's Compendium of Club Juggling, p. 187, by kind permission of the author. 
This time we're going to take another look at feeds patterns that involve more
than 2 jugglers. Don't know what I'm talking about? Then take another look at
the last issue of Kaskade.
Last time I mentioned the possibility of combining passing with moving around.
It's especially easy to do that while feeding: two of the partners keep the
juggle going, while the third gathers in his clubs, runs to his new position
and rejoins the pattern from there. He could also continue juggling as he runs
it's all a question of keeping up the rhythm.
But whether juggling or not, you should still be counting as you move to a new
position. Otherwise you might be in for a nasty surprise, as the title of this
workshop suggests in some patterns you'll be walking right through the line
of flying clubs, so please be careful! Reading this article is fairly safe,
but actually juggling the patterns is not. I, for my part, am not taking any
responsibility for injuries sustained while trying them out.
This time I'm going to stick to the 2count variants of the patterns. If you
prefer to throw with both hands, you can try the patterns with a left 2count.
I'll save runarounds with combined left and right passes for later editions.
Let's start with something easy. A, B and C are standing in the positions shown
in Fig. 1 ac.
A and B are passing 6 clubs in a 2count rhythm. C already raises his open left
hand that will make things easier for B in a few moments.
Without advance warning, B now starts passing to C. As C is already holding
up his catching hand, B can see exactly where she has to throw to. A continues
throwing to B, which means that after a while, A no longer has any clubs, and
B and C are passing together.
When everyone has calmed down again, A can move to the position shown in Fig.
1b, next to B. C turns slightly so that he's looking at A, and the 2nd round
can begin. Try the pattern in all positions. I've shown the first 3 positions
in Fig. 1. After that the pattern repeats itself, except that you're standing
in slightly different places.
Try to keep the pattern going without a break: you never pass back to the partner
you received from, but always to the third juggler. At the beginning that means:
as soon as A has passed his last club to B he runs to his new position. Just
before he gets there he receives his first club from C, for whom the rule also
applies: never throw back to B.
While running, always keep your eye on the pattern. You move around anticlockwise,
while the pattern rotates clockwise. Don't rush and panic. You have two whole
beats with nothing in your hands. And if you already take your first step as
you're passing your last club, and take your last step (backwards) as you catch
your first club from the other partner, you'll find you have plenty of time.
The idea is not to first get to the new position and only then turn round. If
you do that, you'll probably have to catch the pass with your teeth. Running
and turning is all one movement.
To add some spice to the proceedings, you can add an extra club. At the start,
B has 3 clubs, A has 3 clubs, and C already has 1 club. Each of you will always
throw to the same partner: B always to C, A always to B, C always to A.
A and B start together. As C already has one club, he starts to throw to A's
new position one beat earlier than in R2. Take your time, throw slowly, calm
the pattern down. It won't work if you get hectic. I've drawn you a causal diagram
for the pattern. The diagram shows you that there's enough time to pass and
run across it's not necessary to carry the extra club across, though you can
if you want to. When you only have one club remaining in your left hand, you
go across, handing it from left to right as you go. That slows the pattern down
and makes it easier.
More clubs: R1 and R2 can also be done with more than 6 clubs. Using 7 clubs,
the rhythm is alternating and you pass doubles, as in a normal 2person 7club
pattern. The same can also be done with 8 clubs, and it's easier than you might
think.
Fewer clubs: The fewer clubs you use, the easier the juggling. The main difficulty
here is not to lose the rhythm. Take a look on the Internet. I've written the
basic patterns for 37 clubs and 3 jugglers for JoePass! (but only the pattern
with 7 clubs contains a description of the movement).
Other patterns, more jugglers: This is the subject of a separate section.
Runaround the other way around. Instead of running to the right of the pattern
to stand at your opposite number's left side, the idea is now to stand on his/her
right. Of course, you could run all the way around both partners. But it's more
exciting to go straight through the middle. At first sight, you might think
that this is not so very different from R2, but you'd be wrong. As you have
to run through the pattern, you have to pay very close attention to the passing
rhythm, otherwise it could hurt.
When only one juggler is running, you don't move around in a circle, as in R1
R3, but move sideways along a straight line (Fig. 2). Alternatively, when your
partner has just run away, you could step across into his/her vacated position,
in which case the pattern rotates on the spot (Fig. 3). This is more suitable
for conventions and other places where space is limited.
As A makes his last pass, he gets ready to run, waits until B and C have passed,
then goes through the pattern, turning so that he backs into his new position
while receiving from C. The interesting thing is that instead of passing to
the person on the right of the pair standing opposite you, you now pass to the
person on the left. That means that the flight paths of the passes now cross
each other, and there is a danger of midair collisions. For this reason, the
passers should not pass at the same heights. We have made it a rule that the
passes to the juggler who's just arrived at a new position fly slightly higher
and are therefore in the air slightly longer. In Figs. 2b and 3b that means:
C passes slightly higher than B.
Find yourselfs another juggler and a total of 9 clubs. Imagine (or draw) a
pentagon on the floor. A juggler is now standing at 4 of the 5 corners of the
pentagon, leaving one corner empty (Fig. 4).
The rules are the same as before: When you have no more clubs, you run. But
in a curve to the left, as in R4, not to the right, as in R13. Yes, you go
through the pattern.
When you only have one club left, start to move with the pass. You have to go
into the middle of the pattern before the pass from your left neighbour. Now
three clubs fly around you (you hope!) in all different directions.
The first time you try this, you should interrupt the move at this point. The
others should stop passing. When everyone has calmed down again, you can try
the full sequence. Start as before, but this time don't stop in the middle,
continue forward as soon as the clubs have gone past. This should be a fluid
movement, and not too fast. If you go too fast, you just run right into the
passes. So please, BE CAREFUL!
You can do the Shooting Star with one extra club. That makes it slightly faster,
and you begin to understand where the name came from.
Never Loose Count  Top 
Author: Wolfgang Westerboer / Christian Holl?nder
Credits: Kaskade 57
(Illustration from: Charlie Dancey's Compendium of Club Juggling, p. 90, "Golden Rules of Club Passing", by kind permission of the author.) 
This time we present the basic pattern of leftright passing: the 3count. In this pattern, every third throw is a pass, followed by two selfs. The passes come from the left and right hand alternately. Passing with both hands is a lot of fun, and can help you to improve your posture and your juggling in general.
This is a relatively simple pattern that leaves lots of scope for variations.
There are enough selfthrows to allow you to incorporate solo tricks, and enough
passes for both partners to practise passing tricks.
2 jugglers throw 6 clubs, A and B both throw straight. Every third club is passed:
Pass, Self, Self, Pass, Self, Self... Look at the illustration. The white part
in the middle represents the repeating pattern.
Start:
A holds 2 clubs in the right hand, 1 club in the left
B holds 2 clubs in the right, 1 club in the left
Both A and B start at the same time with a righthand pass
(Grafik Muster 7)
Passing with the left hand will feel strange to start with, but don't worry, you'll soon get used to it. Even so, for most people it takes time and practice before they're able to pass as accurately with their left hand as they do with their right. At the beginning it helps to make a conscious effort to pass from the inside to the outside.
441 variations are all based on a pattern that you're probably familiar with
from solo juggling: after throwing 2 doubles (D), you hand (or "feed")
one across (F). Try it out. Notice that the pattern alternates from side to
side: the first cycle starts with the right hand, the second with the left,
etc.
Start for P8 to P11:
As in P7 or
straight out of an ongoing 3count
In the following descriptions the "normal" passing beat is underlined.
That should make it easier to get into the following patterns, starting from
the basic P7.
Two basic principles that apply to all throws:
Singles (S) are thrown to the other hand, i.e. from right to left or from left
to right. Doubles (D) go to the same hand, i.e. from right to right or from
left to left.
Single passes (SP) are thrown straight, from right to left or from left to right.
Double passes (DP) go diagonally, from right to right or from left to left.
That might sound trivial, but it's an important point  regardless of whether
you're throwing a self or a pass: singles go to the other hand, doubles to the
same hand.
Underneath the incoming pass you throw a double, followed by a diagonal double
pass to your partner, then hand the remaining club across, the "feed"
(F). Now you can either repeat the same pattern on the other side or go back
to the normal 3count pattern. A quote from Charley Dancey on the feed (p. 21):
"...this produced a causal arrow moving one beat to the left. It seems
illogical but it actually means: to place a club into the hand you had to empty
it first."
(Grafik Muster 8)
A throws the double self not underneath the incoming pass but at the same time
as B throws her pass. Just before that, A has thrown a double pass to B. The
double self is followed by the feed. At the beginning you'll probably find it
quite difficult to keep P8 and P9 apart  especially when you're trying to juggle
them.
(Grafik Muster 9)
With this variation the 4 4 1 combination is divided between the two jugglers.
Juggler A passes a double instead of the usual single. B could now simply hold
on to one club for a moment (H) and throw a self with the other hand, but of
course that would be a dead boring thing to do. Instead, she can throw a double
and feed a club across. It's great fun: you have to really watch for the moment
when your partner throws the double pass and then immediately throw the double
and do the feed.
(Grafik Muster 10)
A and B should take it turns to practise P8  P10. If both of you try to throw these patterns simultaneously, the clubs are likely to collide. If you throw P8  P10 solid, i.e. without reverting to the normal pattern in between cycles, you can also throw the passes as high singles. The selfs stay as normal singles and doubles. (See the Theory section in Part 1 of this workshop series.)
Try P8 to P11 in permanent alternation:
P8.1: <4 4p 1 3 3 3p  3 3 3p 4 4p 1 > P9.1: <4p 4 1 3 3p 3  3 3p
3 4p 4 1 >
P10.1: <4p 3 3 3p 4 1  3p 4 1 4p 3 3> P11.1: <4p 3 1 3 4p 3 3 4p
3 4p 3 1
Here's a mean trick to round off this series: A throws a double pass, as in
P9. However, B does not respond in the "normal" way, i.e. with a single
pass, but instead goes straight into P10 and throws a double pass too. A can
now throw a single rather than a double, followed by a feed, and the pattern
is rescued. Alternatively, A could pause for 2 beats, holding onto his clubs.
(Grafik Muster 11)
We've chosen a really smart pattern to finish with: the 5count with 7 clubs.
This is likely to make life slightly difficult even for experienced passers.
Start:
A: 2 clubs in the right hand, 2 in the left
B: 2 clubs in the right hand, 1 in the left
(Grafik Muster 12)
As with the 3count, the second cycle starts with a throw from the other hand.
The difficult thing about this pattern is not so much the passes, although at
the beginning you'll probably tend to throw them too high. No, it's the double
selfs that cause the real headaches. Make sure that you're throwing the doubles
to roughly the same height as your partner, otherwise you'll lose the rhythm.
And don't throw the doubles too low or you'll get more midair collisions.
Here are a few more variations on the 7 Club 5Count (roughly in increasing
order of difficulty):
<6p 3 3 3 33 3 3 5p 3> <3p 3 3 4 44 4 4p 3 3> <4p 3 5p 3 33
4p 3 3 4p>
<4p 3 4p 3 3p3 4p 3 4p 4p> <4p 4p 4p 4p 3  3 3p 3p 3p 4p >
And if you still haven't had enough, you can try to throw all of these variations in succession without a break in between.
Don't be put off by the amount of text that follows. This section contains more patterns than the whole of the rest of this workshop article  you just have to piece them together for yourselfs.
Causal Diagrams were developed in the early 90s by Martin Frost. In the summer
1994 issue of Jugglers World he wrote:
"Each arrow represents a throw. This causal notation not only displays
the sequence of throws that each juggler has to execute in a pattern, but it
shows which clubs force other clubs to be thrown."
Our thanks to Martin for having this idea and allowing us to use it in this
workshop.
Causal Diagrams make it easy to write down and read juggling patterns.
The pattern is read from left to right. Each throw is represented by an arrow.
The hands always throw alternately, starting with the right (for now!)
The length of the arrow tells us how long a club is in the air, and also how
many times the club spins  under normal circumstances. The spin is indicated
by a letter: S = single, D = double, H = hold. (There's nothing to stop you
putting lots of wrist into a single to make it a triple. But please warn your
partner before you try it.)
First, take another look at the diagrams in the first part of this workshop.
Now, here comes the puzzle which you can use to build simple passing patterns
for 2 jugglers and 6 clubs. The basic pattern (grey background) consists of
two jugglers each throwing singles on their own. In other words, both of them
are juggling a cascade.
If you now lay the jigsaw pieces onto the base plan, you automatically get a
passing pattern.
(Grafik Puzzle)
How about a 6club 5count, i.e. a 6 club pattern with cycles that are 5 throws
long? Or a 3count in which one of you passes only doubles and the other only
singles? Oh yes, and don't forget to actually juggle the patterns you've made!
I hope you enjoy playing with this.
Don't throw the plan away  you're going to need it again later on.
Articles  http://www.passingdb.com 
Symmetric Passing Patterns  Top 
Author: Christophe Pr?chac
Many passing patterns are symmetric : 4 ct, Waltz, ultimate, triangles, ... . Feeds involving runarounds also enter this category.
Tired to show off in solo juggling, the passing partners engage in friendly cooperation to create beautiful multihand patterns in which improvisation, i.e. tricks and syncopations, is all the more interesting since there is more than one brain involved.
Anyway, in the basic form of a symmetric passing pattern, all partners do the same sequence of throws, either in phase or out of phase. Apparently, there does not exist a comprehensive description of these patterns, although digging the rec.juggling archive unearthed a somewhat related and definitely beautiful article by Tarim (March 94, A new class of passing patterns).
The purpose of this post is to describe all symmetric passing patterns in terms of equivalent solo patterns. As an application, I list at the end all 2 persons 7 objects 3 count patterns.
The analysis to follow makes heavy use of siteswaps. Causal diagrams are also invoked for geometric intuition. It is also rather lengthy ... I believe however that these theoretical considerations can be of practical use, therefore many examples are provided.
This case is wellknown. All jugglers pass and self together the same throws, therefore when someone throws a pass, he is thrown a similar pass so that everything happens as if all jugglers had not passed at all and had instead thrown to themselfs.
These passing patterns reduce to independent identical solo siteswaps. For two people, the number of objects must be even.
Example : with two other waltzers, you can do a 4p 4p 1 PPS triangle pattern.
 Let us look first at the case of 2persons Waltz PSS'.
J2 begins his PSS' sequence 1.5 beats after J1. When J1 passes and gets rid of a club, he is thrown back a P pass 1.5 beats later. Therefore everything happens as if J1 had thrown a P+1.5 self and J2 had thrown a P1.5 self.
This is where causal diagrams provide intuition: translate J2's time axis backwards by 1.5 beats. As a result, selfs are unchanged, J1's passes are shortened, J2's passes are lenghtened, and the two jugglers are now passing in phase, swapping all passes then provides two independent solo patterns.
If n denotes the number of clubs of the valid solo siteswap P1.5 S S' , the passing pattern PSS' must contain 2n+1 clubs, an odd number of clubs. Conversely, starting from any length 3 , n clubs siteswap abc , then a+1.5p bc will describe a valid 2persons, 2n+1 clubs Waltz.
Examples:
222 > 3.5p 2 2 : the slow 5 "ultimate" that Bruno and Hans brilliantly demonstrated in Edinburg.
333 > 4.5p 3 3 : 7 Waltz which Tarim and Martin Frost denote by 966 considering it as a 4 hands siteswap (I find this description slightly akward and misleading as explained later).
 Similarly, for a two persons Pass Pass Self PP'S , P1.5 P'1.5 S must be a valid n objects solo pattern and the PP'S passing pattern will involve 2n + 2 objects, an even number. Sadly enough there is no 7 clubs symmetric PPS (for an asymmetric one, Martin Frost pointed out <4p 4p 3 / 3 3p 4p>).
Examples: 333 > 4.5p 4.5p 3 , 423 > 5.5p 3.5p 3 , two 8 clubs PPS patterns.
 More generally, for 2 persons, if a(1) ... a(L) denotes the sequence of throws, then b(1) ... b(L) must be a valid solo siteswap, where:
Conversely, given any n clubs solo pattern b(1)...b(L) , you may create a 2 persons 2n+k clubs passing pattern with k passes.
Examples:
33 > 4p 3 : 7shower
531333 > 534p333 : 7popcorn,
13141 > 3.5p 3 3.5p 4 1 : why not?
 With more than 2 persons, a general description becomes slightly more complicated, though by no means impossible. Let L denote the length of the pattern and P denote the number of passers. I assume that the set of passers is connected through the passes (thus excluding the popular 4 count squares).
J0 starts first, J1 starts L/P beats later, ... , J(P1) starts last, i.e. (P1)L/P beats after J0. Let us denote the sequence of throws by a(1)pj(1) ... a(L)pj(L) : here a(i) denotes the "height" (siteswap value) of the ith throw and pj(i) means that when Juggler #k throws the ith throw, this throw will be a pass to Juggler #(k+j(i)) [mod P] . selfs are therefore these throws for which j(i) = 0 . This notation is essentially Ed Carstens' MHN notation. Let us now shift back by kL/P beats the time origin of Jk , for all k , as explained earlier. Then, all passers are juggling in phase and the ith throw of Juggler #k has become:
Now, swap all passes! I.e. have everyone throw selfs that are identical in height to the passes they are being thrown. This works because everyone is passing in phase. The passing pattern is then reduced to P independent solo patterns, in particular the pattern of the last juggler is:
By the average rule the number of objects of this last pattern is equal to (a(1) + ... a(L))/L  (j(1) + ... + j(L))/P
Conversely, starting from a solo siteswap with n objects, one may contruct a symmetric Ppassers passing pattern involving Pn + (j(1) + ... + j(L)) objects, for any choice of the destination mapping j( ).
Examples: (they all involve triangles, P = 3)
 { j(1) = 1 , j(2) = j(3) = 0 , 333 } > 4p1 3 3 : a 10 clubs triangle Waltz with passes always to the "next" partner.
 { j(1) = 2 , j(2) = j(3) = 0 , 333 or 144 } > 5p2 3 3 or 3p2 4 4 : two 11 clubs triangle Waltzes with passes always to the "preceding" partner.
 Alternating passing partners in a triangle Waltz will require L = 6 , j(1) = 1 , j(2) = j(3) = 0 , j(4) = 2 , j(5) = j(6) = 0 , so that the number of objects involved will be Pn + (j(1) + ... + j(L)) = 3n + 3 which is impossible for 10 or 11 clubs! Ok, with 12 : 344133 > 5p1 4 4 5p2 3 3 . Kind of ugly but who wants to juggle this anyway? (Of course passing in phase 4p44 is possible)
 { j(1) = 1 , 3 } > 3.33p1 : 10 ultimate with passes to the next.
 { j(1) = 2 , 3 } > 3.66p2 : 11 ultimate with passes the other way round.
 What about ultimate with alternating partners ? As above we need a multiple of 3 objects and there is nothing interesting apart from in phase patterns.
* Symmetric patterns can be used to create asymmetric patterns by shifting the time origins of one or more jugglers as explained above. Examples: In phase 7 ultimate < 4p / 3p > or Tarim's gallopped 7 shower with crossing passes < 4.5p 3 / 3.5p 3 (start 0.5 beats after J1) >
* The notation system used above, i.e. siteswap or mhn, does not say which passes cross. For that matter, causal diagrams do not say it either unless you have decided which hand each juggler uses first. So, do it.
* The reasons why I do not like very much Tarim's notation, e.g. 966 for the 7 clubs Waltz, are first that numbers in this system do not immediately reflect heights of throws and which throws are passes, and second that the sequence of numbers does not actually always denote what the jugglers have to do : as an example 4.5p 1 5 will be denoted in Tarim's system by 9 10 2 , so that dividing all numbers by 2 will yield 4.5 5 1 which is not the desired juggling sequence (and is also impossible since 351 is not a valid siteswap). Also I am more familiar with siteswaps involving 3 or 4 objects then 7 or more :)
5.5p 5 0  5.5p 4 1 
5.5p 2 3  5.5p 1 4 
4.5p 6 0  4.5p 4 2 
4.5p 3 3
4.5p 1 5  4.5p 0 6 
3.5p 6 1  3.5p 5 2 
3.5p 3 4  3.5p 2 5
Odd Passing Patterns  Top 
Author: Christophe Pr?chac
Notes : For clarity, in the causal diagrams below, short and long holds 1x and 2 are not depicted
In all causal diagrams, the causal chains may be distinguished from each other by their different colors. This allows us to represent passing patterns where the jugglers make sync throws: follow the colored paths to understand which hands throw to which.
This pattern is based on 6 sync ultimate. The rest beats of the base pattern offer room to add a seventh club which is passed diagonally to avoid collisions. The version below is way easier for the second passer but it is possible to change roles on the fly.
For ball bouncers only!
Mhn and Causals: Relaxed :) juggling  Top 
Author: Christophe Pr?chac
Multihand notation has been developed by Ed Carstens for use with his juggling program JugglePro. It is an analytical notation system that extends the siteswap construction to an arbitrary number of hands and to an arbitrary juggling rhythm.
Once the juggling hands are allowed to throw at any given beat, one can describe transitions between async patterns and sync patterns or even more bizarre rhythms. Note that in the original mhn system no attention is paid to catching beats, only throwing beats are taken into account.
Multi hand notation, much like standard siteswap notation, is
useful both to provide short descriptions of patterns and to simulate them on
juggling softwares.
Causal diagrams were invented by Martin Frost. They offer appealing
geometric pictures of juggling patterns, particularly passing patterns.
Let f denote the permutation on (a subset of) HxZ defining a juggling pattern,
where H is the set of hands and Z is the set of integers. Then, essentially,
the causal diagram of the pattern is the ladder diagram of f2 (that is: f translated
2 beats in the past).
Now, why is this mapping f2 so interesting?
While the original permutation describes the paths in HxZ of the objects juggled,
the new one f2 describes the paths, or the timetable, of the problems
encountered by the jugglers, which is often all we are interested in: we do
not care which clubs we juggle, we merely want to sustain the pattern as a whole.
This construction works fine both for async patterns and sync patterns. It needs to be adapted however in order to allow for more general patterns: transitions between different rhythms, galloped patterns, etc ...
Causal diagrams are often much easier to use than siteswap/mhn descriptions when one tries to work out syncopations in passing patterns. They are also a powerful tool to discover (i.e., most often, rediscover :)) new patterns.
In this page and its complement, the hurries page, the mhn system and the causal diagram construction are adapted so as to obtain a complete correspondence beween the two notation systems.
The main novelty in the mhn system used here is that it explicitely takes into account the "catching beats", henceforth refered to as dwell beats.
The causal diagram construction is also slightly modified: this concerns essentially the representation of an empty hand 0 and a short hold 1x .
Common juggling wisdom as well as practise suggest that in normal situations, the same hand cannot throw twice in a row (unless hurried throws are allowed). Between two throwing beats, there must be one beat where the hand catches a new object and prepares for the next throw.
Let s be the siteswap value of a throw, s >= 2 , s tells us
how many beats in the future the object will be rethrown (or maybe held further
for a while), it does not tell us however how many beats the object spends in
the air.
The usual implicit assumption is that the airtime value will lie somewhere strictly
between s2 and s , depending on the style of the juggler, or in technical terms
on his choice of dwell ratio.
Here we will adopt a "relaxed" style of juggling, assuming an airtime value strictly less than s1 which means that once an object is caught, it will spend at least one beat in the hand before being rethrown. This assumption is necessary if we want to allow the possibility to violate it later in the hurries page! Anyway, in this page it will be maintained throughout:
Assumption
To a throw of siteswap value s corresponds an airtime
value
strictly less than s1
After an object has landed, it will be prepared for the next throw:
Definition
For an object thrown with siteswap value s , the juggling action that takes place in the target hand s1 beats later, i.e. one beat before it is rethrown, is refered to as a dwell hold
Exceptions for some "small throws":
The "relaxed juggling" assumption does not apply when s=0  an empty hand  or s=1x  a short hold. There will be no corresponding dwell hold.
When s=2  a "throw" usually interpreted as a long hold  it does apply if this 2 is indeed thrown.
When s=1  a fast handacross  the relaxed juggling assumption is difficult to meet: the club should land in the past! We will maintain it however, obviously an idealization, and the dwell hold takes place immediately in the target hand.
Throws are denoted as in JoePass!
However, for "inactive" hands, it is essential to differentiate between the
two following cases:
The hand is empty.
The hand has just caught an object and is doing a dwell hold.
Note that this distinction makes no sense in the original mhn system since both cases correspond to an absence of throw and pure mhn, as well as genuine siteswap theory, only cares about throws.
For a given hand, a dwell hold will be denoted by a dash:  .
For an object thrown at beat t with a siteswap value s>=2 ,
landing will occur between beats t+s2 and t+s1 , according to the previous
assumption. Therefore the target hand must empty itself or be already empty
s2 beats in the future.
Hence the causal arrow representing the throw will be of length s2 .
In particular, a 2 throw will be depicted by a closed loop and a 2x throw by
a vertical arrow.
A fast handacross 1 requires the target hand to be ready for catch immediately, i.e., it must have emptied itself previously. Hence a 1 beat crossing backwards arrow.
A short hold 1x is a problem only for this very hand that is currently doing the short hold. We will depict this by a big point.
An empty hand 0 can only occur if this hand has thrown or was already empty one beat before. Hence a 1 beat horizontal backwards arrow.
A dwell hold  is not really a throw. It will not be depicted
Actually, short holds 1x and long holds 2 do not really need to be depicted. They offer no additional information to reconstruct a mhn pattern from a causal diagram (unless one wants to emphasize if a 2 is thrown or held). For clarity, and particularly in passing patterns, they will often not be depicted.
action 
mhn value  causal arrow 
dwell hold    not depicted 
empty hand  0  1 beat backwards arrow 
short hold  1x  big point (or not depicted) 
long "hold"  2  closed loop (or not depicted) 
fast handacross  1  1 beat crossing backwards arrow 
slow handacross  2x  vertical arrow 
throw s >= 3  s  s2 beats forwards arrow 
1
mhn: ( , 1)(1 , ) or ( , 1)%
slow 1
1x1
mhn: (0 , 1x)( , 1)(1x , 0)(1 , ) or (0 , 1x)( , 1)%
async to sync shower
51 to (2x,4x)
mhn: ( , 5)(1 , )( , 5)(1 , )( , 5)(1 , )( , 1x)(2x , 4x)( , )(2x , 4x)( , )...
sync to async shower
(2x,4x) to 51
mhn: (2x , 4x)( , )(2x , 4x)( , )(2x , 5)( , )(1x , 5)(1 , )( , 5)(1 , )...
3 cascade at height 5
1x5
mhn: (0 , 1x)( , 5)(1x , 0)(5 , ) or (0 , 1x)( , 5)%
3 shower to high 3 switch
5151 5x1 51x51x...
mhn: ( , 5)(1 , )( , 5)(1 , )( , 5x)(1 , )( , 5)(1x , 0)( , 5)(1x , 0)...
2 at height 3!
3x1x
mhn: ( , 3x)(1x , 0)%
4x throw
mhn: ( , 3)(3 , )( , 4x)(1x , )(3 , 1x)( , 3)(3 , )...
4x flash
mhn: ( , 3)(3 , )( , 4x)(4x , )(0 , 4x)( , 0)(3 , )...
from 4 sync to 4 async
mhn: (4 , 4)( , )(4 , 4)( , )(4 , 5x)( , )(4 , 5x)( , 0)(4 , )( , 4)(4 , )( , 4)...
from 4 async to 4 sync
mhn: ( , 4)(4 , )( , 4)(4 , )( , 5x)(4 , )( , 5x)(4 , 0)( , )(4 , 4)( , )(4 , 4)( , )...
3 ultimate
There is only one backwards going causal chain. Passes are drawn
in red for emphasis.
See the oddpatterns page for more interesting passing
patterns where the jugglers throw sync throws.
mhn: <(0 , 3p) ( , 0) (3p , 0) (0 , ) 
(0 , ) (0 , 3px) ( , 0) (3px , 0)>
4 ultimate
With flat vertical passes as in Marc and Benji's beautiful number.
mhn: <( , 2p) (2p , ) 
( , 2p) (2p , ) >
5 ultimate, 2 beats version
(holds are not represented)
mhn: <(2 , 3p) ( , ) (3p , 2) ( , ) 
( , )(2 , 3px)( , ) (3px , 2)>
Gandini's patterns from hell
Take any symmetric passing pattern where the jugglers throw singles in phase and choose any number k (preferably prime with the period of the pattern). Then replace every kth single by a double.
E.g. PPS with k=5:
A 36 beats cycle! Hopefully, the causal is of no particular interest :)
Kickups may be seen as particular cases of multiplex throws. The analysis developed in this page extends easily to multiplex patterns. I skip however a formal mhn description of the patterns for simplicity. Also, in the causal diagrams below, I omit the backwards going arrows that indicate that the foot is empty after the kickup.
6 to 7 Shower
J2 throws a straight double pass on his pass beat, this is a signal for J1 to switch into the 7 clubs version of the pattern.
6 to 7 Waltz
J2 throws a straight double pass (of siteswap value 4.5) on his pass beat, thus signalling to J1 to switch into the 7 clubs PSS pattern with double passes.
6 to 7 PPS
J2 throws crossing double passes on his pass beats, this again is a signal for J1 to start doing his part of the 7 clubs version of the pattern.
Mhn and Causals: Hurried patterns  Top 
Author: Christophe Pr?chac
The concept of hurry was first developed by Martin Frost in an
excellent article of the Fall '97 issue of Juggler's World.
More recent treatments of the subject, with special emphasis on 3 count passing,
were given by Isaac Orr in Juggle, 2000 and Wolfgang Westerboer in Kaskade,
2000.
Here, all 3 clubs are thrown at single height. Two clubs are always thrown to the same hand the remaining club crosses back and forth. The crossing club, although thrown at height 3 , is always rethrown after 2 beats, the noncrossing clubs however are thrown every 4 beats.
We feel that the traditional definition is a little bit unprecise, for instance the following pattern
is not a hurried pattern although it follows the hand pattern RRLL. Here, 3 clubs are juggled at height 5, on triples if you wish, but they are rethrown every 6 beats, making the pattern very relaxed indeed.
Moreover, one may encounter hurries even under the regular RL hand pattern,
e.g. :
that is: juggling 3 clubs in doubles in frenzy circus style. The clubs are thrown at height 4 but rethrown every 3 beats, i.e. 1 beat earlier than normal.
We will therefore adopt the following:
Definition
A hurry occurs whenever, skipping the dwell hold,
a club is rethrown 1 beat too early
Here, we develop a simple method to translate any hurried pattern in the familiar language of sync siteswap theory.
The method is based on the following simple observation: when
we watch someone doing a slow 3 clubs cascade, there is no way to decide whether
he is doing the async siteswap 3 with a high dwell ratio or the sync siteswap
(2 , 4x)(4x , 2).
Indeed, the ladder diagrams of 3 with a dwell ratio d > 0.5 , and (2 , 4x)(4x
, 2) with a dwell ratio of 2d1 are the same.
This simple observation holds for any juggling pattern, hurried
or unhurried. Given our assumption of a dwell ratio greater than 0.5 , any mhn
juggling pattern, hurried or unhurried, can be reinterpreted as a unhurried
sync siteswap juggling pattern.
Essentially it amounts to reinterpret all dwell holds  as short holds 1x ,
and to double the time scale.
For example, the 3 patterns above can be written in sync notation as:
3x3*  sync: (2 , 4)(2 , 4x)(4 , 2)(4x , 2)  
1x5  sync: (0 , 2)(2 , 8x)(2 , 0)(8x , 2)  
4x*  sync: (0 , 6x)(6x , 0) 
This way to denote hurried patterns is useful to emulate hurried,
and other nonstandard rhythm patterns such as 1x5 , on juggling simulation
softwares.
You might need to adjust heights and/or number of spins to get a reasonable
animation. Also the animated juggler will move his hands during the numerous
2 holds appearing in the sync representation
Hurried passing patterns can be written in sync notation as well (and therefore be animated), e.g. Mild Madness:
can be written in sync form as:
The following section proposes a lighter and more direct way to represent hurried patterns.
Starting from mhn notation, we now allow for the possibility to
throw one beat earlier than normaly implied by the throw (siteswap) sequence.
Following common usage, a hurried throw will be identified by a star: *
.
To say that a throw of siteswap value s >= 2 leads to a hurried throw t*, means that the club will be rethrown with a throw value of t after only s1 beats instead of s beats, i.e. skipping the usual dwell beat.
Not of much practical use, but in theory a fast handacross 1 can lead to a hurried throw as well: the club is then rethrown immediately.
The hurried patterns presented previously can be written as:
3x3*  mhn*: ( , 3x)(1x , 3*)(3x , )(3* , 1x)  
4x*  mhn*: (0 , 4x*)(4x* , 0)  
Mild Madness  mhn*: <( , 3p)(3p , 2x*)(3* , )( , 3p)(3p , )( , 3) %   
( , 3px )(3px , )( , 3)(3px , )(2x* , 3px)( , 3*) %> 
which is much more understandable at first glance than in the sync notation:
The sequence ( , 3x)(1x , 3*)(3x , )(3* , 1x) clearly indicates what is going on in 3x3* : self R , followed by crossing R , then self L and crossing L , all in singles. The * on the crossing throws point out that the crossing throws are the difficult throws of the pattern. The short holds 1x are additional information that may or may not be used.
(0 , 4x*)(4x* , 0) is also quite clear: fast crossing doubles.
Finally, in Mild Madness, the sequence
Checking the validity of a hurried mhn* pattern is essentially
the same as for a regular mhn pattern: follow the numbers and make sure that
they define a valid permutation.
Now, however, when one traces the path of an object, one has to make sure at
each rethrowing beat that the object has not already been rethrown one beat
before as a hurried throw. With some practise it is not really difficult.
From a pure mathematical point of view, a hurried throw is equivalent to a normal throw combined with a throw one beat later that goes one beat in the past: * = 1x one beat later. This observation does not seem to be very useful except for the following:
The average rule still holds:
Count each hurried pointer * as an additional 1 throw, then the average of the throws over time, multiplied by the number of hands, must equal the number of clubs
Since mhn* and sync are analytical representations of the same patterns, it is possible to translate from one language to the other. The glossary goes as follows:
mhn  sync  
s , s >= 3  2s2 x if s odd ; 2s2 if s even  
sx , s >= 3  2s2 if s odd ; 2s2 x if s even  
2  2  
2x  2x  
1  0x  
1x  2  
0  0  
  2 
Notes:
The causal diagrams of the patterns, written in mhn* or sync are of course the same, up to the doubling of the time scale and to the representations of the various holds 2 , 1x ,  which are anyway redundant and can be omitted if one wishes.
Whether a throw is hurried or not has no influence on its sync translation.
Translating back from sync to mhn is also possible, although the
three mhn "throws"  , 1x , 2 correspond to the same sync throw 2 . Precise
description is left to the reader :).
Anyway, the hurried throws are the throws that are immediately preceded by an
empty hand or another throw from the same hand that is not a 1x .
Alternating two clubs singles in one hand
Throws are drawn in green for emphasis.
mhn*: (0 , 3x)(0 , 3x*)(0 , 3*)(0 , )( , 3)%
sync: (0 , 4)(0 , 4)(0 , 4x)(0 , 2)(2 , 4x)%
4 doubles/singles switch
mhn*: (4 , 4)( , )(4 , 4)( , )(3x , 3x)(3x* , 3x*)(3x* , 3x*)(4* , 4*)( , )
sync: (6 , 6)(2 , 2)(6 , 6)(2 , 2)(4 , 4)(4 , 4)(4 , 4)(6 , 6)(2 , 2)
1 up 2 up
Starting from the pattern 3x3* , the rest beats are suppressed and used for additional (hurried) selfs. This trick can be applied in many hurried passing patterns, e.g. Jim's 3 count.
mhn*: (3x* , 3x*)(0 , 3*)(3x* , 3x*)(3* , 0)
Alternating shuffle
mhn*: ( , 3*)(2x , 3*)(3* , )(3* , 2x)
A nice trick
Two versions:
mhn: (4 , 4)(1* , )(0 , 4)( , )%
mhn: (4 , 4)(2x* , 0)(0 , 4*)( , )%
A 4 objects 4 count tennis
mhn*: ( , 4x)(4x , )(4* , 1x)( , 4) %
A nice 3 count trick
With the handacross behind the back
mhn*: <(3px* , 0) (4* , 4*) (2x* , 0) (0 , 3px*) (4* , 4*) (0
, 2x*) 
( , 3p) (3 , ) ( , 3) (3p , ) ( , 3) (3 , ) >
sync: <(4p , 0) (6 , 6) (2x , 0) (0 , 4p) (6 , 6) (0 , 2x) 
(2 , 4px) (4x , 2) (2 , 4x) (4px , 2) (2 , 4x) (4x , 2) >
A PPS trick
J1 throws his second pass in advance as a straight double. Follow the colored causal paths to understand which hands throw to which.
mhn*: <(4p* , 3p) (0 , ) ( , 3) (3p , 4p*) ( , 0) (3 , )

( , 3p) (3p , ) ( , 3) (3p , ) ( , 3p) (3 , )>
sync: <(6p , 4px) (0 , 2) (2 , 4x) (4px , 6p) (2 , 0) (4x , 2)

(2 , 4px) (4px , 2) (2 , 4x) (4px , 2) (2 , 4px) (4x , 2)>
async/sync ultimate
J1 forces the rhythm to change without throwing doubles.
mhn*: <( , 3p) (3p , ) (3p* , 3p) (0 , ) (3p , 3p) (3p* ,
) (0 , 3p) (3p , ) 
( , 3p) (3p , ) ( , 3p) (3p , 3p*) ( , ) (3p , 3p) ( , 3p*) (3p , ) >
sync: <(2 , 4px) (4px , 2) (4px , 4px) (0 , 2) (4px , 4px) (4px
, 2) (0 , 4px) (4px , 2) 
(2 , 4px) (4px , 2) (2 , 4px) (4px , 4px) (2 , 2) (4px , 4px) (2 , 4px) (4px
, 2) >
Martin's ultimate
mhn*: <( , 3p) (3p , 2x*) (3p* , ) ( , 3p) % 
( , 3px*) (3px , ) ( , 3px) (3px , 2x*) % >
sync: <(2 , 4px) (4px , 2x) (4px , 2) (2 , 4px) % 
(2 , 4p) (4p , 2) (2 , 4p) (4p , 2x) % >
0 sync shower!
See (0x,0x).txt for more on this nice pattern.
mhn: (1* , 1*)
Akward 1 shower
mhn: (1* , 2x*)
Fast 2 shower
mhn: (2x* , 2x*)
Siteswap sharing and feed passing patterns  Top 
Author: Christophe Pr?chac
(As posted on rec.juggling, February 2001)
This article presents a simple way to deduce (k+1)people (3k+n)clubs feed passing patterns from nclubs solo siteswaps. A nonexhaustive series of feed passing patterns is constructed by this method as an application: included are many popular feeds, such as the shower and ultimate feeds, as well as some lesser known exotic patterns of the hurried and slowfast variety. The only essential restriction is that the selfs of the feedees have to be ordinary singles of siteswap value 3 : you better bring your own popcorn then, if you wish to proceed (and perhaps some aspirin too :)).
Start with everyone juggling solo (but perhaps not in phase): one juggler, the feeder, is juggling a n clubs solo siteswap, while the other jugglers, the feedees, juggle ordinary 3 clubs cascades. Now, at some point, the feeder can choose not to do a particular solo throw of siteswap value s but to do a pass instead of siteswap value a to some feedee ; the feedee will then reply by a pass of siteswap value b after a delay of d beats. To keep the patterns going without trouble (i.e. drops) it must be that b+d = s and ad = 3. If passes are done to the same height (an assumption that can be relaxed at will later on, see the 10 clubs PPS feeds below), we get
That's about it basically. The main interest of this method is that it reduces the search of patterns that follow a specific rhythm for the feeder  say PPS  to the examination of simple solo siteswaps  ss'3 in the previous case. Therefore the patterns to follow will be classified according to the feeder's rhythm: shower, ultimate, etc ...
All passing patterns are written in the siteswap syntax of Wolfgang's irrelevant :) juggling simulator JoePass! available at : http://www.koelnvention.de/software/joepass/index.html (hey, Wolfie I haven't received your check yet, are you sure it's in the mail??). If you can't juggle them, you can at least watch them!
A remark about the directions of the passes (straight or crossing): they depend on which hands are used first by the jugglers. The default hand pattern in JoePass! has everybody starting from the right hand but you can change this by using the #jugglerStartLeft n switch (n: number of juggler you wish to change). A similar remark holds for outside passes versus inside passes (see e.g. the 10 clubs ultimate feed below).
Let us start with the most popular feeds:
3333 and passing on the first and third throws > a = 3 , d = 0
Similarly 5353 > a = 4 , d = 1
(Add #jugglerStartLeft 2,3 to make the feedees pass from the right hand as usual)
etc ... you get the picture: 7373 > a = 5 , d = 2
33 and passing on all beats > a = 3 , d = 0
44 > a = 3.5 , d = 0.5
(Since juggler 2 is on the left of juggler 1 in the default position, you may wish to add #jugglerStartLeft 1 to have the feeder make outside passes as usual)
55 > a = 4, d = 1
Since there is no 4 clubs siteswap of the form ss'3 with s=s', it is clear that there can be no symmetric 10 clubs PPS feed. Many assymetric patterns are possible however.
453 and passing on the first two beats would yield a = 3.5 , d = 0.5 for one feedee and a = 4, d = 1 for the other feedee, resulting in:
This pattern might feel a bit strange to the feeder: the passes are very close to each other but different nevertheless, it is therefore perhaps safer (more stable) to change the delay of one feedee. There are four possibilities:
#extendedSiteswap #cpn
#delayMode  #jugglerDelay 2 0.5 #jugglerDelay 3 0.5
< 3.5p2 3.5p3 3  3.5p1x 3 3  3 4.5p1x 3 >
The 4 clubs siteswap 633 provides yet another completely different pattern:
The symmetric 11 clubs PPS feed is well known:
663 >a = 4.5 , d = 1.5
(the feeder is on the middle line in the causal diagrams) Start with the feeder doing sync crossing (!) 4 clubs in singles which I denote by (3* , 3*), see http://pogo5.free.fr/juggling/hurries.html for details on hurried mhn* notation, then let him pass all right hand throws > a = 3 , d = 0
One can add a club to the previous pattern (well, at least theoretically) by starting from the 5 clubs hurried half shower (3* , 4x*) > a = 3.5 , d = 0.5
Similarly, starting from the hurried 4 clubs sync solo pattern (3* , 4)( , 3*)(4 , 3*)(3* , ) and passing the high throws > a = 3.5 , d = 0.5
Getting weirder. Now the feeder is juggling 4 in singles the usual async fountain way and still 2 times faster than the feedees. This pattern can be denoted by 3x* keeping in mind that throws occur every half beat (the tempo is given by the feedees). Passing all throws we get a = 3 , d = 0 and a pattern that can be denoted as:
Still crazier and a special dedication to some onebearded multihanded British passing guru. To get the usual 9 clubs version of Alan's Anguish, we need the feeder to juggle a 3 clubs cascade 2 times faster than the feedees. Let us (or at least let me!) denote this pattern by 2.5x*, still remembering that throws occur every half beat (2.5 throws should "normally" be rethrown after 2.5 beats, but due to the hurry pointers '*' everywhere, all throws are actually rethrown 1 beat earlier, i.e. after 1.5 beats). Passing all throws we get a = 2.75 (!), d =  0.25 and:
Just the three of us: Paris gymfloor remix  Top 
Author: Christophe Pr?chac
Credits: Kaskade 62 & 63
As in Kaskade 59, we are just the three of us ... and the song remains the same: what can we do with approximately 9 clubs?
This passing workshop is devoted to a few feed passing patterns with 8, 9 and
10 objects. They are all derived from actual regular practice sessions down
here in Paris, in some dark and  this being written in winter  poorly heated
room. Although these patterns are relatively rarely seen in the gyms, I believe
them to be both interesting and useful for practising more standard patterns.
You will perhaps appreciate that all the proposed patterns can be juggled under
a fairly low ceiling as they contain only singlespin throws (syncopations notwithstanding).
In all the patterns, the jugglers are denoted by J1, J2, J3. The feeder is
J2 and the feedees are J1 and J3 .
In the triangle feed position, feedee J1 is the feedee on the right, from
the feeder's viewpoint..
All patterns are illustrated (and summed up) by causal diagrams. The feeder
J2 stands on the middle line, feedee J1 is above on the first line, and feedee
J3 is below on the third line. The causal diagram also contains implicitely
the starting position: each hand at the beginning of the diagram starts the
pattern with 2 clubs, the other hands start the pattern with 1 club.
Say you are three passing partners but you only have eight clubs. Do you desperately need to borrow an additional club?? No! Just as it is possible for two passers to have fun with 5 clubs, see the article on 5clubs ultimate in Kaskade 56, there exist 8clubs feeds that are both interesting and enjoyable. Alternatively, you may consider practicing these patterns as warmup exercises before more serious stuff, or ... as chillout sessions after some furious number passing.
Everybody juggles an ultimate pattern: no selfs, only passes. But the feeder
and the feedees follow different rhythms.
The feeder  on the middle line, in the diagram above  is on the fast side: he (or she, of course) juggles on a standard ultimate rhythm and makes only outside passes along the sequence: Cross, Cross, Straight, Straight, or in other words: R to J1R, L to J3L, R to J1L, L to J3R.
The feedees are on the slow side: they juggle twice slower than the feeder, as if doing one side of the 2passers 5clubs ultimate pattern on a rather quiet pace. This huge amount of time for the feedees between the passes can (must?) be put to good use to insert and improvise fancy variations: flourishes, pirouettes, additional throws such as Self+Handacross between passes, box variations: passing with the "wrong" hand while simultaneaously freeing the "correct" hand with a handacross, ...
Starting position: The feeder has 2 clubs in each hand, the feedees have 1 club in each hand.
Siteswap description: < ( , ) (2 , 3p2x) ( , ) (3p2 , 2)  ( , 3p1x) (3p3x , ) ( , 3p1) (3p3 , )  (2 , 3p2) ( , ) (3p2x , 2) ( , ) >
A reasonably simple pattern and a very nice one to watch. In this pattern, the usual triangle position of the jugglers is stretched to a straight line, the feeder J2 stands in the middle with J1 on his right.
The first feedee J1 is doing 4count righthanded while the second feedee J3 is doing 4count lefthanded out of phase with J1, meaning that J3 will start throwing passes 2 beats after J1.
The feeder is now on the slow side of the pattern and he makes only passes
on a very slow pace, but he will do them behind the back or under the arms for
more fun and visual effect.
(Don't be abashed by the backwards going arrows, they simply mean that the feeder's hands remain empty for one beat after he has passed.)
The sequence of passes for the feeder is as follows: 1. throw behind the back with left and catch with the right, 2. pause, 3. throw behind the back with right and catch with the left, 4. pause.
Notice that the rest beats of the feeder allow him to indulge in fancy swinging movements between the catching and throwing positions. Also, the feeder might turn a halfpirouette now and then, resulting in normal outside passes and catches (try it, it really isn't difficult).
Needless to say, the feedees can try to throw all their usual 4count tricks ...
Starting position: The feeder has 1 club in each hand, feedee J1 has 2 clubs in the right and 1 in the left, feedee J3 has 2 clubs in the left hand and 1 in the right.
Variation: Both feedees pass with the right hand making life for the feeder (slightly) more difficult.
Siteswap description: < ( , 3p2) (3 , ) ( , 3) (3 , )  (3p1x, ) (0 , 1x) ( , 3p3x) (1x , 0)  (3 , ) ( , 3) (3p2 , ) ( , 3) >
The nineclubs shower feed is certainly the most popular passing pattern for 3 jugglers, be they beginners or advanced. And for good reasons: it really is a wonderful pattern! The only drawback of the shower feed is that it is strictly righthanded ... In my opinion, a passing session cannot be complete and really fulfilling without a few ambidextrous patterns. Come on: bring some relief to your left shoulder and give them a try!
The nineclubs PPS feed has been already addressed in Kaskade 59. Here I would only like to mention that it is both feasible and entertaining to change roles on the fly in this pattern now and then.
One feedee wants to move to the feeder's side, making the other feedee the new feeder. How does it work?
One solution goes like this:
Assume that J3 , the feedee on the left of the feeder J2 , is also the "second"
feedee, i.e. the feedee who receives the _second_ pass of the feeder. Now, J3
wants to move to J2's side, making J1 the new feeder, he will do this as follows:
on his right hand pass beat, J3 begins to walk towards his new position on the
(left) side of J2, catches the incoming club in the left hand, while still walking
and turning leftwards in order to face J1, and throws the club back to J1 on
his normal left hand pass beat.
So the entire move lasts for 3 beats. During this period J3 can either stop
throwing selfs (and therefore manage 2 clubs in the left hand for a short while)
or keep on juggling normally, throwing his two selfs (I find it easier this
way).
Naturally, the exfeeder J2 will have to stop passing to J3 : he will shift
from PPS to PSS without transition.
While J1, the new feeder, will have to convert his first self into a pass to
J3, shifting from PSS to PPS without transition.
The sequence of throws is summed up in the causal diagram:
Try it! Hilarity and drops guaranteed on first tries!
Remarks:
With every switch the hand order of the feeder's passes is exchanged: in the
example
above from (RO = right outside, etc ...) RO LO LI RI to RI LI
LO RO .
Oddly enough, if the "first" feedee wants to move, the transition is less natural.
See by yourself!
Siteswap description: < 3p2 3 3 3p2 3 3 3p2 3p3 3 3p2 3p3 3 
3p1 3p3 3 3p1 3p3 3 3p1 3 3 3p1 3 3 
3 3p2 3 3 3p2 3 3 3p1 3 3 3p1 3 >
An advanced 9clubs pattern perhaps, since it is a little bit fast. What happens here is that the feeder will do Pass Pass Handacross while the feedees will follow a 3count rhythm Pass Self Self. What? Pass Pass Handacross instead of Pass Pass Self!? How can it be?? Let us look at the causal diagram:
(the backwards going arrows represent the handacrosses)
Notice three points from the causal diagram:
 from the throw positions, one sees that the pattern is staggered: the feedees'
passes are done half a beat after the feeder's
 from the lenghts of the arrows, the (single spin) passes must he higher than
the selfs
 finally, note that the feeder's passes are straight while the feedees make
crossing passes.
Starting position: The feeder and feedee J1 have 2 clubs in the right hand and 1 in the left, feedee J3 has 2 clubs in the left hand and 1 in the right. Each feedee waits for the feeder's pass to be thrown to him before replying by a pass.
Variation: The feeder makes crossing passes and the feedees make straight passes.
Siteswap description: feedees J1 and J3 delayed by half a beat
< 3.5p2x 3 3  3.5p1 3.5p3 1  3 3.5p2x 3 >
A nice pattern, and quite doable if the feeder feels comfortable with 6 clubs ultimate. The feeder always makes inside straight passes. J1 showers lefthanded and J3 showers righthanded.
Starting position: The feeder and feedee J3 have 2 clubs in the right hand and
1 in the left, feedee J1 has 2 clubs in the left hand and 1 in the right.
Variation 1: The feeder makes outside passes.
Variation 2: Both feedees pass with the right hand.
Siteswap description: < 3 3p2  3p3 3p1  3p2 3 >
This pattern is similar to the Eight clubs fast/slow ultimate/ultimate feed
examined previously: everybody juggles an ultimate pattern: no selfs, only
passes ; but the feeder and the feedees follow different rhythms.
The feeder  on the middle line, in the diagram above  is on the fast side:
he juggles on a standard ultimate rhythm and makes only inside passes along
the sequence: Cross, Cross, Straight, Straight, starting with J3 on the left,
in other words: R to J3R, L to J1L, R to J3L, L to J1R.
The feedees are on the slow side: they juggle twice slower than the feeder,
as if doing one side of the 2passers 5clubs ultimate pattern on a rather
quiet pace. Once you manage to get a reasonably stable pattern, the feedees
can try to use the huge amount of time between the passes to insert and improvise
fancy variations as in the 8 clubs version. Note that the feedees always pass
to the closest feeder's hand, namely J2R for J1 and J2L for J3 .
The pattern differs from the 8 clubs versions in two respects however: the pattern is now staggered and the single spin passes should be higher than usual (say, as in 7 shower in singles). Also ... it is much more difficult!
Starting position: The feeder has 3 clubs in the right hand and 2 clubs in the
left, the feedees have 1 club in each hand. Each feedee waits as long as possible
before passing back to the feeder.
Siteswap description: feedees J1 and J3 delayed by half a beat
< (2 , 3.5p2x) ( , ) (3.5p2 , 2) ( , )  ( , 3.5p3x) (3.5p1x , ) ( ,
3.5p3) (3.5p1 , ) 
( , ) (2 , 3.5p2) ( , ) (3.5p2x , 2) >
A few (lowceiling) 10clubs patterns to finish off this passing session.
A logical followup of the 9clubs ultimate feed ... but actually a completely different pattern! (and also a much more difficult one)
The feeder juggles a (relatively fast) ultimate pattern with outside straight passes. J1 showers righthanded while J3 showers leftthanded. Both feedees throw crossing passes. The passes of all the jugglers should be high and lofty, and in any case, they should be higher than the selfs of the feedees.
Notice that the causal diagram is divided in 2 independent parts: each hand of the feeder passes 5 clubs with a different feedee (so that each feedee passes back to the hand that feeds him). You can also readily see that the pattern is staggered: the passes of the jugglers alternate along the sequence J2 J1 J2 J3 . The relative lenghts of the arrows clearly indicate that all passes should be higher than the selfs of the feedees.
Starting position: The feeder has 2 clubs in each hand, feedee J1 has 2 clubs in the right hand and 1 club in the left hand, feedee J3 has 2 clubs in the left and 1 in the right. Each feedee waits for the feeder's pass to be thrown to him before replying by a pass.
Remark: This pattern is also know as the gorilla pattern. Guess why!
Tip for the feeder: practice each hand separately (i.e. with only one feedee).
Variation 1: The feeder's hands pass simultaneously. This is what sometimes
happens naturally after a while anyway.
Variation 2: The feeder makes outside crossing passes (and the feedees pass
straight). I personnaly find this version easier than the true "gorilla".
Variation 3: Both feedees pass with the right hand
Siteswap description: feedees J1 and J3 delayed by half a beat
< 3.5p2x 3  3.5p1 3.5p3  3 3.5p2x >
The ten clubs shower feed in doubles is very popular. Surprisingly, the single spin version is almost never seen.
The feeder will essentially do one side of 7clubs shower in singles ... but
with two partners instead of only one. This means that he will juggle on a slightly
galopped rhythm, the selfs following quickly the passes, with selfs higher
than usual and actually as high as the passes. For the feedees, they have to
make lofty single passes to the same height as the feeder's, and certainly higher
than the selfs ; moreover the feedees might be slightly galopped as well, the
first self quickly following the pass.
The pattern is staggered: the feeder passes first to J1 who will wait as long
as possible before passing back, then the feeder passes to J3 who in turn waits
before replying.
A remark about the rhythm: in actual practice, the pattern is not as much galopped as the causal diagram suggests ; in order to even the rhythm, most jugglers will keep the clubs in their left hands for a longer time than they keep them in their right hands.
There is a collision problem here between the feeder's pass to J3 (on the left) and the incoming pass of J1: make sure that J1's passes are long and high enough.
Starting position: The feeder has 2 clubs in each hand, each feedee has 2 clubs in the right hand and 1 club in the left. Each feedee waits for the feeder's pass to be thrown to him before replying by a pass.
Variation: Switch back and forth from the the standard double spin version of the pattern to this single spin version.
Remark: In case of a drop, the pattern will rapidly settle down to a standard 9clubs shower feed. It is possible to kick up the dropped club back into the pattern as follows: move the club on your right foot, then, on your (last  if you are a feedee) self beat, throw a lofty single pass with the left hand while simultaneously kicking up the dropped club to your right hand. Everybody will feel quite hurried for a few throws. Good luck!
Siteswap description: too tedious ;)
The last pattern is really advanced for the feeder. Essentially, he will do one side of 8clubs shower in singles, passing a lofty single with the right hand while simultaneously throwing a same height single self from the left hand.
Both feedees juggle a righthanded shower pattern with passes and selfs as high as the feeder's (they should try to juggle as sloooow as possible ...).
Starting position: The feeder has 2 clubs in each hand, the feedees both have 2 clubs in the right hand and 1 club in the left hand.
Siteswap description: < ( , 3p2) (3 , )  (3* , 3p1*) (3* , 3p3*)  (3 , ) ( , 3p2) >
8 clubs: synchronous symetric rhythms  Top 
Author: JiBe
With 6 clubs, the base of most passing patterns
is two jugglers juggling a solo 3 club cascade synchronously. They're doing
some singles and alternate right and left hand throws. Let's write that
as:  RH self: S  LH self: S  RH self: S etc... so each juggler's sequence is SSSSSS.... 
J1: SSSSS
J2: SSSSS 
So what happens when J1 decides to throw a pass to J2? J1 now has one less club in his pattern. He now needs to get another club back, and J2 is the only supplier available at the moment. 
J1 passes to J2 > problems 
Solution: J2 passes at the same
time 
J1 and J2 throw synchronously (as passes or selfs) with their RH and LH alternatively.
Selfs (noted S) are crossing singles (RH > LH or LH > RH)
Passes (noted P) are tramline singles (RH > LH or LH > RH)
The rhythms are symetric (symetric passing patterns) and synchronous: if J1 does S, then J2 does S  if J1 does P, then J2 does P.
We're going to do exactly the same thing. The base is now 2 jugglers juggling
a solo 4 club fountain in doubles. We can juggle exactly the same patterns than
with 6 clubs, but some of the rules change:
Selfs (noted by S) are straight doubles (RH > RH or LH > LH)
Passes (noted by P) are crossing doubles (RH > RH or LH > LH)
There is no more singlepass or singleself !
Once the theory is known, there is not much more to say, except:
These patterns are collision prone because both jugglers are passing crossing passes at the same time. See the collision page for assistance!.
In 4count (PSSS), you pass and receive from the same hand. Each club you receive is the one you're going to throw back. In usual 6 and 7 club patterns, this happens in a 3count.
Here are a few patterns you can try:
4count (PSSS)
3count or PSS (and the 6count) are detailed here.
1count or ultimate (P). Also worth trying in singles.
PPS (to be mastered before example 2)
and the chocolate bar (PPSS) !
I haven't tried this yet, however JoePass! can do it perfectly :) , and I think it might be possible to do 1 or 2 cycles if you can already do the above PPS and have understood well 6 club Mild Madness.
Here's how it goes:
J1 (top line in the diagram)
throws crossing passes, J2 throws straight passes
We don't have (as in
mild madness) a passzip, rather a doublezip (the double being a self).
In fact, it's worse than
that; because when you receive a pass at the 'wrong' end, you have to throw
a crossing self double followed by a zip (or at the same time as the zip).
The full cycle is in
fact: PPS PPScZ, which means:
Pass, Pass, Double Self  Pass, Pass, Crossing Double Self, Zip
The causal diagram for
a full cycle shows all this.
8 clubs Mild Madness
Brendan Brolly Notation (or BN)  Top 
Author: JiBe
Credits: original idea by Brendan Brolly
Thanks to Tarim for clarifying some things for us on this matter in Rotterdam. Also, feel free to take a look at the articles posted on this subject at rec.juggling in 1994 (there's one in particular by Tarim that is interesting because it expands the theory to include other rhythms and feeds, which I will do here one day).
This theory, whose application lies essentially in 6 and 7club ultimate, says the following:
To pass 6 (or 7) clubs in ultimate is somewhat like juggling 4 (or 5, respectively) alone, horizontally, from the point of view of one of the two jugglers.
Thus one could try to derive traditional siteswap figures using the following rules. The numbers can be written in BN (Brendan notation), since the pattern doesn't follow the classic rules of siteswap. With 4 and 5ball solo patterns as a starting point, one may be inspired to find corresponding passing patterns.
BN number 
ultimate 6 
ultimate 7 
0  empty hand  empty hand 
1  handacross  handacross 
2  hold  hold 
3  single self  single self 
4  single pass (straight across)  double self 
5  double pass (crossing)  single pass (straight) 
6  triple pass (straight)  double pass (crossing) 
7  ...... (quadruple)  triple pass (straight) 
So that's from the passer's point of view.
For the one who's catching the passes, just one tip: throw only when you have to. To clarify, wait until a pass arrives (in the case of doubles and triples) to empty your hand (by throwing).
The corresponding passes are in red. Note that the top juggler, who receives the passes, waits each time until the last possible moment to throw, the pauses shown by blue arrows.
BN : 53 siteswap : <3p 3p 2 3p 3p ... 3p 4p 3 3p 3p ...> Written out : doubleself 
BN : 534 (continuous) siteswap : <3p 2 3p 4p 3 3p> Written out : double, self, pass, double, self, pass,... Note : this becomes almost PPS 
BN : 552 siteswap : <3p 3p 2 3p 3p ... 3p 4p 4p 2 3p...> Written out : double, double, pause 
BN : 5551 siteswap : <3p 3p 2 3p 3p 3p... 3p 4p 4p 4p 1 3p...> Written out : double, double, double, handacross 
BN : 55550 siteswap : <3p 3p 2 3p 3p 3p... 3p 4p 4p 4p 4p 0 ...> written out : double, double, double, double, empty hand 
BN : 633 siteswap : <3p 3p 2 2 3p ... 3p 5p 3 3 3p...> Written out : triple, self, self 
Try also 6451, 64514 (continuous) and all siteswaps that come to
mind.
BN : 64 Written out : double pass, double self 
BN : 663 Written out : double pass, double pass, self 
BN : 744 Written out : triple pass, self, self 
Causal Diagrams & Siteswaps  Top 
Author: JiBe
Credits: causal diagrams were invented by Martin Frost
<N1 N2 N3 N4  M1 M2 M3 M4> 
A passing siteswap consists of two sets of numbers (N for one side, M for the other) between brackets: '<...>' and separated by '  '.
Each of the sequences describes the throws of one juggler. By default,
these are integers, as in a solo siteswap (but you will see that this is not
always true). A throw that is a pass will be indicated by a p after the
number (ex.: 3p for a normal single self). When you get to the end of
the sequence, go back to the beginning as in solo siteswaps (instead of writing
"a b c a b c a b c a b c ..." we settle for "a b c").
If the sequence is especially long, it may be separated into 2 (or more) parts
in the following format:
<N1 N2  M1 M2>
<N3 N4  M3 M4>
When the two jugglers do exactly the same thing (at the same time or
staggered), the rhythm is called symmetrical (Christophe's "symmetrical
passing patterns"). Thus sometimes we only need
to write one sequence.
Ex.: 5p 3 3 3 instead of <5p 3 3 3  3 3 5p 3>
For those who know nothing about solo siteswaps, take a look at the recommended sites posted on the links page.
A twoperson causal diagram is made up of two lines. Each line represents one of the jugglers. On these lines are written the letters R and L, which represent the two hands of each juggler:
Next, we add arrows between the letters (hands), which represent a throw, whether a self (staying on the same line) or a pass (crossing lines).
Time progresses from left to right, from which it follows that the arrows point toward the right: first one throws and then one catches. That explains the alternation of L's and R's on each line; in a normal juggling pattern, one's hands throw one after the other.
For each circle (letter), there will be an arrow coming in and another arrow going out, i.e. one incoming pass and one outgoing pass (cf. the examples below; the first explanatory diagram don't show this because it is not a complete diagram). This illustrates the fact that one must throw a club in order to be able to receive another. The incoming club is the cause of the next throw.
The explanations given here follow (for now) the normal rules of siteswap, which state:
Beware however, contrary to the ladder diagrams, the arrows do not lead to the time when the same club will be thrown again. The arrow points at the moment when the club is caught (if it had been thrown there), combined with the moment when another club is thrown to take its place.
<3p ..... .....> 
A single pass (single spin) that goes straight across (R to L) 
<4p ..... .....> 
Double pass 
<5p ..... .....> 
Triple pass (it's easy to imagine what quadruple passes would look like...) 
<3 ..... .....> 
Normal single self. 
<4 ..... .....> 
A double (which then comes back to the hand that threw it). 
<5 ..... .....> 
A triple self (changing hands) 
<3p 2
..... 4p .....> 
Keep one club in hand (the arrow won't always be drawn). When no club arrives for a given hand, one may hold the club for another beat. That's a chance to do a flourish, thumb twirl... 
<3p 1
..... 3p .....> 
A handacross. The arrow goes backward (back in time)!!! That's because this handacross is the cause of the previous throw: you have to free the right hand for catching it. 
<3p 3p 3 0
 ..... > 
An empty hand (no need to throw). Again, the arrow goes back in time: in order for the hand to be empty, one must have made an earlier throw with the same hand. That's the cause that makes it possible to catch the incoming club. 
<3p 3 3 3  3p 3 3 3>
This is the most common pattern (every other). The jugglers pass at the same time and always with the right hand. There are 3 selfs between each pass.
<3p 3 3 3p 4 4p 1 3p 3 3 3p 3 3>
Waltz: jugglers pass at the same time and alternate between right and left hands.
Here one of the jugglers, upon receiving a pass does:  self double (4)  crossing double pass (4p)  handacross (1, the arrow pointing left)
<3p 3 3p 2 3p 3 3p 3 3p 3 4 4 5 3 0 3>
Here, the bottom juggler does the traditional rightlefttriple in 2count.
The first double, thrown at the same time as a regular
pass, arrives late (a double takes longer to get there
than a single). The top juggler therefore has a
pause (a 2) with his left hand (which otherwise would have
received a regular pass).
When someone throws a triple, there is no pass coming to the right hand, which will then be empty two counts later (at which point the arrow goes backward: a 0).
<4p 3  3 4p>
Here you will begin to grumble, and with good reason: why are 4's (doubles, all the passes) not made as crossing passes (R to R or L to L, as before)?
It's because the two jugglers are no longer doing exactly the same thing at the same time. The R's of the top juggler correspond to the bottom juggler's L's. There is a staggered start, which is not indicated by siteswap notation (on Joepass! you would enter it as "#jugglerStartLeft 2").
<4p 3  3 4p>
This is crossing 7 clubs in 2count
which follows the rules stated above. The jugglers throw with the same
hand at the same time, but one of them must make lefthanded passes.
You have seen in the previous examples that the two jugglers don't always throw with the same hand at the same time. According to the time delay between both their right (or left) hands, I categorize rhythms into three families (not counting hurries or 'galloped patterns').
Siteswap does not take staggered starts into account. Therefore, sometimes
there are several ways to juggle certain sequences (cf. <4p 3  3 4p>
in the examples above).
Be also aware that the new rules stated under are valid only for passes. Selfs
throws will always follow the usual rules.
This includes 4count, 3count,
2count, 1count
with 6 clubs, 4count or crossing
2count with 7 clubs...
In this family, the standard siteswap rules apply:
 even passes (4, 6... i.e. doubles, quadruples...) cross: R>R or
L>L
 odd passes (3, 5... i.e. singles, triples) go straight across: R>L
or L>R.
For example, 2count or compressed
mesopotamia with 7 clubs.
Note that the 1count delay means that when A throws with the RH, B throws with
the LH. In this family, the standard siteswap rules are reversed:
 even passes (4, 6... i.e. doubles, quadruples...) go straight across: R>L
or L>R
 odd passes (3, 5... i.e. singles, triples...) cross: R>R or L>L
These are essentially 7club patterns 3count,
ultimatebut also some with 6 clubswhynot?as
well as 8 and more.
In this family, the rules change completely; since the delay is no longer a
whole number, neither are the passes. The passes are now written as 3.5p,
4.5p, 5.5p...
In practice, you may choose to do either doubles or singles for 3.5p (which
is between 3 and 4  I know, you could've figured that out on your own).
A second new element is that in this case, one juggler makes all crossing passes, while the other makes all straight passes (without changing the numbers). Thus we have: If N (=3.5p for example) is a crossing pass for J1, it is straight for J2. And N+1 (4.5p in this case) is therefore a straight pass for J1.
A special siteswap notation may be applied to these patterns: 4handed
siteswaps.
I know that some people won't agree with this classification system.
However, if the diagrams are new for you, this may be less confusing.
FYI, some points to consider:
The total number of clubs equals:
(average of the numbers in the two sequences)*(number of jugglers).
For
example, for <3p 4 4 1  3p 3 3 3 > :
average = (3+4+4+1+3+3+3+3)/8 = 3 (24/8)
and the number of clubs
= 6 (3*2, i.e. 3 clubs per juggler).
One could also calculate the number of clubs juggled by each juggler (with his corresponding sequence) as in normal siteswaps. When doing this, one often ends up with numbers like 3.5 clubs per juggler (for regular 7 clubs).
In order to calculate the number of clubs in a causal diagram, we must first find (and define this notion) the number of causal lines present in the diagram. In the example below, the three causal lines are clearly shown (one blue, one green, one red). This should be enough to understand the concept of causal lines. One may also make a vertical line and count the number of arrows that it crosses, but in this case arrows that go from right to left (handacross and empty hand) should be counted as negative.
So we have: number of clubs = ( number of lines ) + ( total number of
hands).
In the case of 2person passing patterns, there are 4 hands.
Here: number of clubs = 3 + 4 = 7 (it's a popcorn with 7 clubs).
In short, the lines represent the number of objects in the air at a given time, as opposed to those which jugglers hold in their hands (which is how we get the formula).
A hurry is often defined as throwing twice in a row with the same hand. This often happens because someone catches the club in the "wrong" hand.
Here I've shown the hurries in green, breaking the alternation of RLRLRL... by sometimes having 2 R or 2 L in a row.
Here I've tried to represent a duplex in a 2count pattern (6 clubs). The bottom juggler catches two clubs in his right hand and throws them back two counts later.
The diagram's ambiguity comes from the fact that one line (the red one) is broken. We should agree on a way of dealing with this, perhaps by introducing a new arrow (like the dotted one) in the diagrams.
If desired, one may add an extra line to show self patterns which necessitate, for example (as is the case here for columns) synchronous throws. Note that the line (red loop) thus created does not intervene in the calculation of the number of clubs in the pattern (we have simply created a problem for ourselfs by throwing a club even though nothing forced us to do so).
Note: Most jugglers do this pattern by throwing synchronous doubles, handacross, pass (not synchronous doubles, handacross, self, pass). When making a clear diagram, you can see that theoretically that triples should be thrown, but by taking some liberties in throw height, it still works with doubles.
A kickup is the action of picking up and "throwing" (in a self or a pass) a club with one's foot. A circle with an F (for Foot) suffices for this type of diagram. In this case, you create a new line since you add another club to the pattern.
Thus you can play with the diagrams, doing what you want with them. Feel free to take some initiative!
Adding jugglers is simple, both for the diagrams and for siteswaps. In the diagrams, all you have to do is add a line for each new juggler.
For siteswap, you add a sequence of numbers for each juggler (still using a '' (pipe) to separate each juggler). On the other hand, you must identify which juggler should receive which passes, so we write 3p1 to note a pass thrown to juggler number 1 (The jugglers need to be numbered first).
<3 3 3p2 3  3p3 3 3p1 3 3p2 3 3 3>
<3p2 3 5p3 2 2 3 ... 3p3 3 3 4p1 2 3 ... 3p1 3
3 3 3p2 3 ...>
How to avoid collisions  Top 
Author: JiBe
This type of collision is the most common and can happen in any pattern when both jugglers throw a crossing double at the same time. To avoid them, you have to agree once and for all that crossing doubles will be thrown from the inside (close to the navel), whatever the pattern.  
With collision 
Without collision 
To avoid this, you have to agree that the person who throws with the right hand (R to R) will throw their pass from the outside (from as far right as possible) and the one who throws lefthanded passes will throw from the inside (from the centre). The diagrams on the left will give you an idea. An example of a such a pattern is Brendan's Folly.  
With collision

Without collision

This type of problem is rather difficult to resolve and is only relevant to certain barbaric patterns (e.g. compressed Mesopotamia). In theory, one must create imaginary corridors, the two jugglers slightly offset from one another (see diagrams); in practice, it's still hard to do!  
With collision

Without collision

Introduction to hurrys  Top 
Author: JiBe
Reminder:
The context is that of patterns that can be put into classic siteswap
notation, in which one's hands throw one after the other.
Hurry: definitionA hurry comes about when a club (or ball) is thrown one count sooner than normal. 
All that was to give you an idea of the principle; to be able to go on to discover
your own passing patterns.
In passing, to create a hurry (we will later see how to get out of them using
various passes), one throws a crossing pass which otherwise should have been
straight pass (or vice versa).
Let's take a classic 4count, for example:
Classic 4count: 

With a hurry on the last pass: < 3px 3 3 3  3p 3* 3 3 > 
The bottom juggler makes their last pass a crossing single (in blue, R to R). The hurry (in red) comes from the fact that the top juggler makes a pass with their right hand at the same time. They must free their right hand right afterward in order to receive the crossing pass. It's easy to see that the alternation between Right and Left (RLRLRL) is brokenwe have RLRL RR LRLR.
Thus we can create new patterns based upon most classic patterns; all that needs to happen is for one juggler to cross all his passes that he previously threw straight across. The two jugglers can then continue on with the same rhythm. In the example above, the top juggler starts a 4count lefthanded cycle after the hurry.
Continuous 4count with a hurry: <3px 3 3 3 3px 3* 3 3  3p 3* 3 3 3p 3
3 3>
Thus we get a pattern with one juggler who crosses all their passes (in blue).
The two jugglers alternate 2 cycles of lefthanded 4count and then 2 cycles
of righthanded 4count. The hurry (in red) switches from one juggler
to the other.
3count with a hurry (Jim's 3count): <3px 3 3 3px 3* 3  3p 3* 3 3p 3 3 >
So that's how we get new patterns! Consult the hurry section on the rhythms
page to see more.
See also Martin's Madness, which uses
a handacross to alter the basic pattern.
This is only a modest introduction. Those who would like more indepth explanations of hurries (definition, mathematical aspect, etc.) can look at Christophe's article on the subject. For applications, see also the following pages: self hurries, pass hurries.
Hurried passes in passing  Top 
Author: JiBe
Different, new patterns can be deduced from this (depending on how I react) if my partner keeps on making their passes this way (always crossing instead of the usual staight).
I've identified 3 ways to react. I wanted to make diagrams for other patterns than the 4count, but I think you'll get it anyway.
React as in Jim's 3count (this is the easiest way)
You keep on juggling a 4count, whatever hand the club arrives in. I sometimes call it the "nozips" version.
<(,3p)(,3)(3,)(,3) (3p,)(,3)(3,)(,3)%  (,3px)(3,)(,3)(3,)
(,3px)(,3)(3,)(,3) %>
Pretty hard. You keep juggling a right handed 4count. A short zip allows you to throw as if the club had arrived in the right hand.
<(,3p)(3,0x)(,3)(3,)  (,3px)(3,)(,3)(3,)>
As in Mild Madness
There is a zip as previously, but this one is easier since you allow yourself to throw twice from the same hand (using a straight self single in the case of a 4count).
<(,3px)(3,)(,3)(3,) (,3px)(3x,2x)(3,)(,3) %  (,3p)(3x,2x)(3,)(,3)
(3p,)(,3)(3,)(,3)%>
Hurried selfs in passing  Top 
Author: JiBe
I deal with passes here. This page deals with the selfs and we will assume that we're using a rhythm which is not a 1count.
Let's take any passing rhythm and see what we can do with the selfs:
Theory for popcorns patterns  Top 
Author: JiBe
Credits: based on Christophe Pr?chac ideas
7 club popcorn (a definition): a passing pattern in which one juggler lifts 4 clubs, leaving the other one juggling 3 clubs, before he throws back a club and reverse the situation. Similarly, you can define some 8 and 9 club popcorns.
Thanks to Christophe (this pages owes a lot to Christophe and to Hans Gault who discovered these patterns), I understood what were the mathematics (siteswap formulas) behind all these patterns.
You can find some other kind of popcorns (with more than one pass per cycle for instance), but I won't describe them here.
s s s ... (n times) = {s}n.
Example : {4}3 = 4 4 4
Then it's very short, we simply have the following popcorn families:
2ncount popcorn:

(2n+1)count popcorn

and you can carry on: 
and you can carry on: 
You see very well from these formulas there is a 4 clubs part, a pass, and a 3 clubs part.
Remark: All these pattern are symetric, meaning that both jugglers do the same thing (but staggered). We thus only write the sequence of one juggler.
When you replace n by some reasonable values, you get quite a few patterns. What is also amazing is to discover here some classical patterns such as the 2count or the 1count.
In 2ncount popcorns, the passes are tramline and always made by the same hand.
In (2n+1)count popcorns, one juggler does crossing passes, the other does straight
passes. Juggler 2 starts half a beat after juggler 1, and passes are made from
both hands.
Note also that all sequences of 4's can be replaced by an equivalent 4 club siteswap (44 can be replaced by 53, 4444 by 5551, ...). You can do that at any time without warning your partner since it's not going to change anything on their side of the pattern. The same applies to the 3's (333 replaced by 441 or 531).
I've added some stars to indicate the very good ones.
2ncount popcorn

(2n+1)count popcorn


{4}n 3p {3}n1

{4}n1 4p {3}n

{4}n 3.5p {3}n

{4}n1 4.5p {3}n+1


n=0





3.5p 


n=1

4 3p 
4 3.5p 3 3count popcorn *** 
4.5p 3 3 

n=2

4 4 3p 3 
4 4p 3 3

4 4 3.5p 3 3 5count popcorn *** 
4 4.5p 3 3 3 
n=3

4 4 4 3p 3 3

4 4 4p 3 3 3 classic popcorn when done with 53. 
4 4 4 3.5p 3 3 3

4 4 4.5p 3 3 3 3 
n=4

4 4 4 4 3p 3 3 3 
4 4 4 4p 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 3.5p 3 3 3 3 
4 4 4 4.5p 3 3 3 3 3

4 hands Siteswaps  Top 
Author: JiBe
This notation is used in certain specific cases:
Since J1 and J2 don't throw at the same time, one might think of it as nothing more than a single imaginary juggler with 4 hands throwing the clubs one after another in the following order: RHJ1 (J1's right hand), RHJ2, LHJ1, LHJ2.
Thus we can assign numbers to each throw as we did in normal siteswap and obtain the following table showing the correspondence between the two:
4handed siteswap

Description

Normal siteswap equivalent

0

empty hand

0

1

impossible

0.5p

2

handacross

1

3

impossible

1.5p

4

pause 
2

5

almost impossiblevery
fast pass

2.5p

6

normal self

3

7

lofty single pass

3.5p

8

double self (straight across)

4

9

lofty double pass

4.5p

10

triple self (crossing)

5

11

lofty triple pass

5.5p

When faced with a 4handed siteswap, first we have to know to whom the sequence appliesthe 4handed juggler, J1, J2?
Normally, there's a sequence for the virtual juggler: S1 S2 S
3 S4 S5
...
and it is specified: where J1 does S1
S 3 S5
... and J2 does S2 S4
...
You can draw a table to associate each number with the hands of each juggler if you still need to convince yourself:
S1

S2

S 3

S4

S5

...

RHJ1

RHJ2

LHJ1

LHJ2

RHJ1

...

The pattern is 966 in which J1 and J2 do 966 (lofty double pass, self, self).
The 4handed siteswap is 9 6 6 7 7 9 6 6 7 7 ...
J1 does 96767, J2 does 67967 (identical to 96767).
The pattern is 96677 in which J1 and J2 do 96767 (lofty double pass, self, lofty single pass, self, lofty single pass).
The 4handed siteswap is 9 6 2 9 6 6 9 6 6 9 9 6
9 9 2 9
... J1 does 92696992, J2 does 69669699.
The pattern is 9629669669969929 in which J1 does 92696992 and J2 do 69669699. Don't feel obligated to try it, it's just to have an example where J1 and J2 don't do the same thing (this is because the length of the sequence is an even number).
Introduction to slowfasts  Top 
Author: JiBe
The theory behind this is not very complicated at first glance. A slowfast pattern (for 2 jugglers) is actually a pattern in which each juggler has to juggle at a faster pace than the other. For example: if J1 makes 3 selfs between each pass (4count), J2 would make only 2 selfs (3count) or 1 (2count).
The 2 jugglers then have to agree on a few necessary modifications. Since J2 is doing a 3count, J1 will have to throw the passes to the left then to the right alternatively whatever their rhythm (ambidextrous or not). Thus, sometimes they will have to cross their passes (and sometimes not).
There is a slow side and a fast side to this pattern. Usually people say that
the slow side is the side where the juggling is slower.
For example: if J1 makes a 4count and J2 a 2count then J1 has the fast side
and J2 the slow side.
If you would like to pursue this further, don't miss Johannes Waldmann article
in issue number 61 of Kaskade: Hobo Zwiefacher
You can also have a look at a few examples (which are not all that easy):
technofeeds, Alan's
Anguish and the feed 3count/ultimate.
Introduction to feeds  Top 
Author: JiBe
When doing a "feed", there is somebody (the feeder) who's passing to 2 other jugglers (the feedees), facing them at the same time. F passes to F1 and F2 in a pattern which has to be defined. F1 and F2 only pass to F. F1 and F2 usually juggle the same pattern, but staggered since we assume that F is not going to catch 2 clubs at the same time (this assumption is broken with synchronous patterns). 
As a consequence, F passes twice as often as F1 or F2, since they have to throw as many passes as the F1 and F2 together. If F does an ncount, F1 and F2 do a 2ncount (no matter how many clubs there are). We're assuming here that F1 and F2 are doing the same pattern.
Example: 

In the most classical feed, the feeder
F is doing a 2count alternating between the 2 feedess, who do a 4count.
While a pass is made between F and F1, F2 is doing a right hand self. The causal diagram (for 9 clubs) shows that very well, F being the middle line. 
If you can't read this, check the page about "causal diagrams". 
Once the feeder's rhythm is known, it is easy to find what rhythm the feedees are doing (slowfasts not allowed here).
the feeder  the feedees 

1count  2count 
2count  4count 
PPS  3count 
3count  6count 
mild madness  Jim's 3count 
PPSS (chocolate bar)  4count 
...  ... 
Now you can go back to the feed section to try out a few patterns.
Feeds  From Feeder to Feedee  Top 
Author: JiBe
Credits: Kaskade 64
We carry on with "just the three of us" (see previous articles),
but this time we will get more interested on moving and swapping places than
on rhythms. The basic pattern is a normal feed, with the feeder in a 2count
(but tips will be given for a 3count or PPS feeder).
Keep also in mind that if most of the patterns can (and should) be done continuously,
it is good practise to learn step by step and to make breaks (no, keep juggling,
break here just means you don't move anymore) after each change of feeder/feedee.
About the drawings :
Most patterns are illustrated with drawings featuring three jugglers called
A, B and C, seen from the sky. There is a nose for the direction which they
should be looking at (normally the direction where the passes come from).
Plain arrows indicate passes, and you should be able to distinguish between
left and right passes. Dotted arrows indicate movement.
The drawings are made only when a pass happen (every 2counts for a 2count).
At the moment of receiving (and sending) a pass, a feedee,
for instance B, can decide to leave the pattern (Out). He just has to make
it clear for the others jugglers, by either saying it or moving out of the
pattern. The two remaining jugglers carry on with a 4count (2count is
also possible), the other feedee changes nothing and the feeder does now
righthand selfs instead of passes to B. Now B can come back (In) at four different places (see fig.), including his previous position. At that moment, a feed can resume. The new feeder, by making it obvious to B (either by looking at him or making an obvious pass gesture or both) will start passing to B instead of doing right hand selfs. B has to react by starting passing to him at the same moment. 
If you want to go from one position to another in the shorter possible time,
you are doing "Quick Outs & Ins". The sequence goes like this
if you go next to the current feeder: (1) throw your last pass from your position,
(2) start moving while placing the club in your left hand in the right (where
there is 2 clubs now), (3) catch the incoming pass from the feeder while moving
to your new position, (4) turn quickly while the two other jugglers pass, (5)
pass to the new feeder while doing a last backward step, this first pass in
your new position happens 4 counts after the last one.
Only steps (1) and (5) are pass beats (for the moving juggler). You can also
keep juggling while doing it but it's more difficult as you have to quickly
turn while juggling.
You can try "Quick Outs & Ins" to go the 3 available positions
you see in the drawing, going through the passing being the more challenging
one. Try also moving to another place after each pass.
If you want to do the same thing with the feeder in PPS, just bear in mind
the following points (assuming that if you are B, you move toward position 1,
if you are C, you move to position 2) :
If you are the left feedee (from the feeder's point of vue) and you leave with
a right pass, you come back on the other side with a right pass 4 counts after
(same with left).
If you are the right feedee, and you leave with a right pass, you come back
with a left pass 5 counts later (but you could also agree to come back 3 counts
later).
If the juggler on your right starts moving, you become the new feeder by doing
(just after his pass) : pass (old feeder), self, self (do a pass instead if
you agreed on 3 counts), pass (old feeder), pass (moved juggler, 5th count).
If the juggler on your right starts moving, you do : self, pass (old feeder),
self, pass (moved juggler, 4th count).
If you're the old feeder, you carry on with a 3counts with the unmoved juggler,
making selfs instead of passes to the moved one.
Here, you just have the two feedees swapping places. The feeder does not move
at all, he just has to follow what's going on so that he can adjust his passes.
How B moves first is important because it will be of use in all the following
patterns (this one being the easiest). B, at the moment of throwing a pass,
decides to move so that he already has made a small step to the front when the
corresponding pass comes to him (Fig.1). He then keeps on moving to the left
and to the front so that he is ready to step in front of C (and to pass, Fig.3)
just after A and C next passes (Fig.2), which should be just on his left side.
As B moves now to the back, he frees place for A and C passes (Fig.5).
While B moves to the left as described, A should also move slightly to the right
to ease B's task.
That's it, B and A have changed places, A is now ready to do the same thing
(Fig. 5&6). If you do so continuously, it just looks like B and A are turning
around each other.
In this pattern, and in the following ones, the principle is the same : you should consider a giant, using three human jugglers as props, and juggling a 3 ball cascade with them. The path followed by the jugglers is a figure of 8.
If we describe one movement, we will see how B (Fig. 1) can go through the
passing to come next to C, without stopping juggling and passing.
If you look closely, the first 3 steps are exactly the same than in the tornado.
But after that, instead of moving back (next to A), B will now come next to
C. He will keep moving to the left, but will also start turning so that he can
do a last pass to C (Fig. 5), and will be ready for the next pass to A (after
Fig. 6). It's now C's turn to go to the other side (Fig. 6).
The pattern has a 30pass cycle. You should also be aware that going from rightfeedee
to rightfeedee (B's described movement) doesn't feel exactly the same than
going from left to left (C's following movement).
This version of Bruno's nightmare (with the feeder in a 2count) is the easiest to learn and is the original one (invented by Bruno Saxer and corrected by Martin Frost). Now if you find this one too slow, you can try faster variations by shortening the number of passes made by each feeder (the following turbo is one of the very fast variations) or changing the rhythm (a 3count variation is described later but you can try PPS or ultimate).
In this nightmare, the feeder does a 3count, one feedee a right handed 6count
and the other a left handed 6count. What makes it difficult is more the changes
between rhythms than the movement itself.
As the 3count is slower than the previous 2count, we use here fewer passes
for one change of feeder. The feeder will do only 3 passes (C in Fig.1, 2, 3)
before he becomes a feedee (C in Fig. 4). What happens is when B (as a feedee)
tries to change side, he will only make two passes to C before starting passing
to A (new feeder).
There is nothing really new if the previous version is understood. What could
be clarified is the change of rhythm. For every juggler (if done continuously),
it goes like this :
3count (3 passes)
righthanded 6count (3 passes)
3count (3 passes)
lefthanded 3count (3 passes)
Turbo follows the principle of Bruno's nightmare, but with a much shorter cycle
(the shorter you can find with a 2count).
If you carefully look at B, he has already turned 180° by the time he makes
his second pass which is a pass to A (and not C as previously). Having said
that, the drawings should be selfexplanatory.
In this pattern, there is not much time left to think about what to do, just
do it.
For all these patterns, each juggler should pay attention to where the juggler he passes to is moving. Therefore, he can do his passes so that when the juggler has moved, the pass is not too far from him nor aimed at his face.
Hobo Zwiefacher  Top 
Author: Johannes Waldmann
Credits: Kaskade 61
You know the polka, you know the waltz  now it's time to learn the Zwiefacher. The Zwiefacher is a dance in which threefour time alternates with fourfour. Let's just listen in to what Erlenmeyer and Keulenheier have to say on the subject…
Erlenmeyer: Wanna pass?
Keulenheier: Sure thing. Which pattern?
Erlenmeyer: Let's start with ordinary passing.
Keulenheier: You mean the waltz!
(Editor's Note: The waltz is the basic 3count pattern  selfselfpass. See
part 2 of the passing workshop series in Kaskade 57.)
Erlenmeyer: Well actually I'd rather just do righthanded passing.
Keulenheier: Shame on you! But I've got just the pattern for us: you can do
your boring old 4count and I can do the waltz.
Erlenmeyer: At the same time? But then three of your throws have to take the
same amount of time as my four, otherwise the passes would arrive at the wrong
time.
Keulenheier (KH): Exactly. And your passes have to alternate between straight
and across because I'm passing left and right, so I expect your passes to come
in left and right too.
Erlenmeyer (EM): But you always pass to my left hand, even though your rhythm
is the waltz. So you also throw alternately straight and across, straight with
the right and across with the left. (See fig. 1)
Grafik 1: slow fast 34.ps
EM: OK, you've had your rest now. It's my turn to do the slow side of the pattern.
KH: But I want to carry on doing my waltz!
EM: And I want to carry on catching left and passing right... Hey, it IS possible!
You carry on doing your waltz, but now I'm going to switch to a 2count: every
righthand throw is a pass, every left throw is a self. Otherwise it's the same
as before  I alternate between straight passes and cross passes to you. Great,
now I can relax. (Fig. 2)
Grafik 2: slow fast 23.ps
KH: OK, I've had enough of that! From now on I'm doing a 1count. Every throw
is a pass. You carry on with your 2count if you want.
EM: But then I have to juggle twice as fast, you lazy sod! (Fig. 3)
Grafik 3: slow fast 12.pass
EM: Phew, this is getting a bit strenuous. Let's go back to 3 and 4count.
Let me try your side of the pattern for a change.
KH: Go ahead. But just to make it interesting, lets swap roles after every pass:
On the first beat you do the waltz and I do the 4count, then on the next beat
you do the 4count and I do the waltz.
EM: That sounds reasonable. So where should I throw to? Before, when I was doing
the 4count, I had to keep changing my target, throwing straight to the left
hand, then across to the right…
KH: …and I always had to aim at your left shoulder while I was doing the
waltz. That was alternating straight and across too, because I was constantly
switching my passing hand.
EM: So now it goes like this: I do (straight pass, self, self, cross pass, self,
self, self)…
KH: …and I do (straight pass, self, self, self, cross pass, self, self)
(Fig. 4)
Grafik 4: slow fast fast slow 34.ps
EM: This is getting complicated. I pass with the right hand, the left hand,
across and straight  everything combined with everything else.
KH: Yes, and the change of pace each time also makes it very  er  instructive,
don't you agree?
EM: You're not kidding. "Instructive", eh? I suppose that's one way
of putting it. What you really mean is that we aren't going to be able to keep
it up for very long.
KH: Hmm. Let's cheat a bit. The main thing is to make sure that the pass after
the waltz doesn't arrive too early, otherwise the one who's doing the 4count
has to hurry too much.
EM: Exactly! So why don't we throw the pass after the waltz as a double so that
it stays in the air for longer.
KH: That's just what I was thinking. But then the thrower of the doublespin
pass has to insert a short pause, otherwise he'll find himself waiting for a
pass that doesn't come.
EM: So let's recap. I have to go: (straight pass, self, self, double cross pass,
wait, self, self, self)…
KH: …and I have to go: (wait, self, self, self, cross pass, self, self,
double straight pass).
EM: OK, that might even work. But how do we start?
KH: Let's think. Your last throw on the first beat is a double cross pass.
EM: That looks exactly the same as an early double in the normal 4count.
KH: Right, so let's both start with a 4count, and at some point you can throw
an early double, to which I respond by throwing a single cross pass. (Fig. 5)
Grafik 5: 3443
KH: So this pattern not only includes both right and left passes that go either
straight or across; it also includes singles and doubles. That's why my mates
call it the "Leipzig Allsorts", after a special kind of vegetable
stew that's supposed to be popular in our home town.
EM: I say, have you noticed that we always throw the double pass with the same
club. It's always up high  from me across to you, from you straight to me,
then from me across again to your other hand, then from you straight back to
me.
KH: That's why you could look at this pattern as a preliminary exercise on the
way to doing the waltz with seven clubs. In the 7club waltz, three of the clubs
are doing precisely that.
EM: Seven minus three ... so where are the other four, then?
KH: Two stay with me as selfs, and the two others stay with you. (Fig. 6)
Grafik 6: walz7.ps
EM: But let's get back to 6 clubs. We were doing waltz versus 2count a while
ago.
KH: You can also turn that into an Allsortstype pattern. You go: (straight
pass, self, double cross pass, wait, self, self) and I go (wait, self, self,
cross pass, self, double straight pass) (Fig. 7)
Grafik 7: allerlei 2332.ps
KH: Now we're both doing the low pass always with the same club.
EM: Wait a minute, here in the causal diagram the arrows are pointing in different
directions!
KH: But the arrows are not the paths of the clubs. If you draw those, you get
a ladder diagram.
EM: So why don't we do that?
KH: Because there aren't so many arrows in the causal diagram, and it's easier
to interpret them.
EM: I bet a Onecount/Twocount Allsorts is also possible.
KH: Of course. You do (straight pass, double cross pass, wait, self) and I do
(wait, self, cross pass, double straight pass)
EM: And we can start into that like we did before, with an early double pass
out of a simple 2count. (Fig. 8)
Grafik 8: allerlei 1221.ps
KH: That's pretty heavy stuff!
EM: Now that I look at it, this is a PassPassSelf.
KH: Which is why it can also be used as a way of practising for the 7club PPS.
(Fig. 9)
Grafik 9: pps7.ps
EM: Oh look, here comes old Stürenburg from the National Convention Date
Coordination Authority. I bet he'd like to hear about our new patterns after
a hard day's work.
KH: Not only that, he'd probably like to try them out.
Stürenburg: Good day, gentlemen. Yes indeed, I could do with a bit of a
waltz right now...
KH: ... and you'd probably like me to do a 4count. All right. But it would
be a shame if Mr. Erlenmeyer had to stand around doing nothing. Perhaps I could
have you both doing the same pattern.
EM: Good grief, but that means that you'd be feeding, so you'd have to do a
2count instead of a 4count.
KH: Quite right. I pass first to Mr Erlenmeyer's right shoulder, then to Stürenburg's
right, then Erlenmeyer's left, then Stürenburg's left.
Stürenburg: Whereas we always waltzpass to your left shoulder.
KH: Could I ask you both to keep the pace fairly slow  otherwise it'll be hard
for me to juggle fast enough. (Fig. 10)
Grafik 10: slow fast feed 323.ps
Stürenburg: I think you've earned a rest, Mr Keulenheier. We should swap
sides now.
EM: Not sides, but numbers! If we both do 4count and Mr Keulenheier does a
3count…
KH: Well, it is possible. But instead of doing a proper waltz, like you were
doing just now, I think I'd rather do a PassPassSelf. If you would be so kind,
would you please aim your 4count passes alternately to my left and right shoulders.
(Fig. 11)
Grafik 11: slow fast 4pps4.ps
EM: That was fun. But it's time for bed now. Before we next get together, perhaps
you could try and think of a way to do a threeperson Leipzig Allsorts.
Stürenburg (exits, mumbling to himself): I must try that out at the business
lunch tomorrow with the ladies and gentlemen of the PassingPatternNamingandAdministration
Authority…
The unsquare dance  Funky 7 club patterns  Top 
Author: Jon SkjerningRasmussen
Credits: Kaskade 65
If you are reading this article you probably know the feeling: time slows down,
the outside world has finally lost all its importance, you are thinking about
nothing in particular, yet your mind is not wandering, there is simply no necessity
for you to use your imagination or your capacity for abstract thought  all
that matters is that you are alive  Alive and Passing. Magically every throw
is perfect  every catch requires absolutely no effort, two (or more) minds
are tuning in to the same frequency. And then comes the moment that is the beginning
of the end: you become conscious of what is happening, a small river of chills
(and adrenaline) is running up your spine  and 'Bang' it all falls apart and
you both let out a small 'yeehaa' or a 'wow'.
The three articles in this series are about some of the weird and wonderful
patterns that I and other nerds have come up with during moments of great inspiration.
Hopefully they will bring you as much enjoyment as they have brought me.
Before I get started with the patterns I would like to thank Wolfgang for inventing
the marvellous tool: JoePass!, without which several of the patterns here wouldn't
have been invented yet (by me at least). I will also advertise the usefulness
of 'causal diagrams'. Knowing how to use them can be a major factor in enhancing
the output of one's sessions of creative inspiration.
In these articles I take as my basic presumption that the reader has at least
some knowledge of causal diagrams. For the ones who want to groove on these
patterns in actual 3dimensional space, however, I find it essential to be able
to juggle the pattern that I find to be the doorway these types of patterns:
the 7club 3count. So I start with explaining that pattern. But enough talk.
Let's get to the patterns.
I have divided the funky 7club patterns into different categories (not something
I have given a lot of thought to so it mightn't be the most efficient way):
7club 3count (if you can call one pattern a category  maybe 7club 1count
should also go in this category, see kaskade 57).
PassPassSelfs (pps)
Bookends (ppsps  or pspsp if you like)
Countdowns
Popcorns
Other Patterns (whatever doesn't fit into the other categories, so far I have
at least one pattern here)
This first article deals with the three first categories, but fear not, the
other categories will be carefully dealt with in the following issues. And,
by the way, sometimes I have added a few 3 people feed patterns derived from
the 7club pattern, but hey…
To start a pattern, simply follow the causal diagram, beginning at its left side. Every juggler holds one club in every hand, plus one club for every arrow that reaches the hand from the left side of the pattern. In the first pattern, J2 will start with 4 clubs, and J1 has 3 clubs.
This is, as I said, the basic ambidextrous 7club pattern. I always warm up
with this one before moving on to other patterns.
If you have done no ambidextrous juggling before, learn the 6club 3count (pss),
and do that until you have the throwing rhythm totally automatic. Practice throwing
'late doubles' in this patterns (i.e., a crossing double pass on the pass beat).
This trick is likely to make your partner fuck up the pattern as she gets a
'hold', and thus won't be passing back the same club as she receives (which
is what you normally do in a 6club 3count). To avoid this, count out loud:
"right, two, three, left, two, three, right, …". When you both
can throw continuous 'late doubles' you are definitely ready to do try the 7club
version.
In this pattern you are both throwing double passes. However one of you, 'juggler
1' (J1), will be crossing your passes while the other, 'juggler 2' (J2), goes
straight. The passes will also need to be slightly floatier than normal doubles
(for mathematical and practical reason). J2 (the one that passes straight) starts
with 4 clubs doing: floaty straight double pass, self, self, … J1 waits
1 1/2 beats (or 'as long as possible') before starting, doing: floaty crossing
pass, self, self, … (or he can wait only half a beat and starts with a
left self).
Pat. 1:
The four handed siteswap for this one is 966 (if you don't understand why and
can't wait another page, see footnote 2).
If you have problems with the rhythm you can 'colour code' the pattern. To do
that, take 3 clubs of a different colour, and hold them so that they will be
the passes. J1 has one coloured club and holds it as the first one in the right
hand. J2 (the one who starts) holds one coloured club in the right had as the
first one and one coloured club as the second one in the left hand. This way
you will always be passing the coloured clubs, while the 'normal' clubs always
are selfs.
All the tricks that can be thrown in a 6club 3count can also be thrown in
the 7club version, only they have to have one more spin  doubles become triples,
triples become quads, etc. J1 will have to make her triples straight and his
quads crossing, while J2 will do the opposite. Keep in mind that all the passes
have to be done floaty here.
If you just want some great patterns to groove on, move straight on and leave
the tricks till you are juggling with someone not as nerdy (or zen) as you.
A great passing rhythm whose basic pattern is pretty well known among ambidextrous passers. However, also another variation exists. The result is at least as spine tingling.
J1 does crossing doubles and J2 does a straight single followed by a crossing
double. J2 starts with 4 clubs, and both jugglers start simultaneously:
Pat. 2:
This pattern can also be done with reversing the passes so that the double passes are straight, and the single is crossing  a nice variation that feels quite different. To do this one juggler starts with the left hand. (Just imagine that all the 'R's are 'L's and vice versa in J2's line in the causal diagram).
Here is a pps where J1 does everything on singles. J2 does all doubles (also
the selfs, which makes this side it a bit harder and groovier to juggle). J1
has 4 clubs.
Pat. 3:
Also here can it be interesting to reverse the passes so the singles are crossing
and the doubles are straight (the self double stays straight!).
As pps has twice as many passes as 3count (pss) it is the perfect pattern for feeding two 3counts. There are probably heaps of ways to do this. Here are two, one with 11 clubs and a funkier one with only 10.
This one is fairly simple, as all the passes are floaty doubles. The 'feeder'
(FF) has 5 clubs and throws inside, inside, self, outside, outside, self. 'feedee
1' (F1) stands on the right side of 'feedee 2' (F2) and starts 1 1/2 beats after
FF (when FF's first right pass is arriving), doing the crossing side of a 7club
3count starting with the right hand. F2 does the same, but waits 2 1/2 beats
after FF and starts from the left hand.
Pat 4:
In this pattern everybody starts at the same time from the right. F1 stands
to the right of F2. FF has 4 clubs and does: crossing double to F1, straight
single to F2, self, cross doub (F2), straight single (F1), self. All the feedees'
passes are straight and both start with a self before doing their 3count sequences.
F1 does: left single pass, self, self, right trip pass, self, self. F2 does:
left trip pass, self, self, right single pass, self, self.
Pat. 5:
But let's now go back to 2 people and 7 clubs…
Now we get into 7club versions of the 'old' 6club pattern 'bookends', a 5count with 3 passes and 2 selfs. The selfs always have min. one pass in between (got that?) . (see footnote 1).
The basic pattern in this section is another great fusion of technology, creative
inspiration and skill (thanx for your patience, Mandy), but it isn't actually
that hard, you just add another pass and another self to the basic pps. J2 starts
with 4 clubs.
Pat. 6:
Don't forget to try both ends and to reverse the passes like in the other patterns.
Here is a version where both jugglers do (almost) the same. J1 does floaty
crossing singles and straight floaty doubles and J2 does the opposite  is that
clear?!?. J2 has 4 clubs, and J1 starts immediately (half a beat) after.
Pat. 7:
As this pattern is asynchronous (none of the four hands throw at the same time) it can be written down as a fourhanded siteswap: 96677 (see footnote 2). Each juggler throws 96767.
For an even weirder bookends (as if it needs to get any weirder!) try 86777,
where each juggler juggles 87767 in turn. J1 has 4 clubs, and J2 starts half
a beat later.
Pat. 8:
For a 'reverse' bookends (sspsp) try this one  it even has a triple in it
 oooohhh. J1 starts with 4 clubs (at the same time as J2).
Pat. 9:
This one cannot be written in a fourhanded site swap as it is a synchronous
pattern, which also means that the passes don't need to be floaty, and that
you can try making the crossing passes straight and vice versa.
"And I'm spent…"
1. There are (at least) two different ways to think about bookends patterns.
One is to just do ppsps, the other is to pspsp (i.e., three right hand shower
passes in a row followed immediately  no self in between!  by three left hand
passes). Try to do the same pattern with both "feelings"  it doesn't
feel like the same pattern even though your body is doing exactly the same (trippy,
huh). I also discovered that this pattern is exactly the same as one that Wolfgang
describes in Kaskade 57 as
<4p 3 4p 3 3p3 4p 3 4p 4p>, but never mind…
2. Brief explanation of fourhanded siteswap
 6s are normal selfs (the same as 3 in "normal" siteswap)
 7s are floaty single passes (or 3.5s)
 8s normal self doubles (to the same hand  like normal 4s)
 9s are floaty double passes (4.5s)
 10s are crossing self triples (5) (please note that 10 can easily be confused
with a 1 followed by a 0, however 1s almost never appear in fourhanded siteswap,
so a 10, 11, 12, etc are always to be read as ten, eleven, twelve, etc. in this
type of siteswap here, unless otherwise specified)
 11s are floaty triple passes (5.5)
So all even numbers are selfs while odds are passes  a 5 would be a very fast
pass, a 4 is a hold, a 2 is a zip and a 0 is an empty hand. I don't think I
believe in 1s and 3s, definitely not with clubs.
Important about the passes (but not about the selfs): if "juggler 1"
does 7s, and 11s straight and 9s crossing, then "juggler 2" will have
to do her 7s and 11s crossing and the 9s straight.
Take Seven ? more funky sevenclub patterns  Top 
Author: Jon SkjerningRasmussen
Credits: Kaskade 66
This is the second article in a series of (at least three) articles on wild
7club passing. All the patterns are ambidextrous so if you are not used to
passing 7 clubs using both hands I advise you to learn some of the patterns
described in the last issue of Kaskade (65), where I went into '7club three
count', different versions of 'pass, pass, selfs', a few 'bookends' (or ppsps)
and a couple of 3person feeds based on some of the patterns.
This time the focus is on one of the branches of wild 7club patterns we didn't
get a chance to look into last time namely 'Countdowns'. And there is also a
'bonus pattern' that doesn't seem to be closely related to the other patterns,
but that just makes it even more interesting.
This is a branch of passing that has existed for a while in 6club passing, but hasn't (as far as I'm concerned) been introduced into the vast world of 7club passing. But fear not! Here it comes. There is at least one Really Nice Pattern in this category  invented by Trevor Lewis and me here in my back yard in Copenhagen  hence the name.
This pattern is a countdown from 3  (that is, one round of threecount, then
a twocount, a onecount, a twocount and then all over again). As you can see,
the name 'countdown' is actually not really appropriate as there is as much
counting up as there is down, but what the heck. The countdown from 3 is the
shortest of the patterns worth denoting with the dubious term (a countdown from
2 would be a pps). It actually only has 8 throws before it repeats itself, which
makes it onesided (as 8 is an even number). The entire throwing sequence is
then psspspps. Some people (myself included) find it easier to remember the
entire sequence rather than counting down (and up). I normally think of it as
one round of a threecount (that is 'pssp') followed immediately by the reverse
(that is 'spps').
To do this pattern warm up by doing it with 6 clubs. When that feels comfortable
pick up that extra club and proceed to the Copenhagen Countdown.
In this pattern 'Juggler 1' (let this be the best of you if you are not at the
same level  the reason for this will become clear in a moment) starts with
two clubs in each hand throwing the countdown sequence like in the 6club version
but making his passes crossing floaty doubles. If 'Juggler 1' (J1) starts from
the left hand it will be easier for 'Juggler 2' (J2), (so J1 actually does the
lefthanded version of the countdown, while 'J2 does it righthanded. You could
practice the lefthanded version with 6 clubs first if you are sure this won't
mess up your partner's head even more as he will then have to learn it lefthanded.
The terms 'lefthanded' and 'righthanded' are not totally appropriate in this
context as the pattern has two right passes and two left passes, no matter what
hand you start from. However, the pattern is still onesided since it repeats
every eight beats, and it actually feels a bit different doing the 'lefthanded'
version.).
J2 has two clubs in his right and one in his left and does exactly what he was
doing in 6club version (starting righthanded), only his passes are (straight)
floaty doubles (this will be fairly easy if you have the 6club version solid).
J2 starts one and a half beats after J1, so the timing of the start is exactly
like in a 7club threecount, (for more info on the 7club threecount see Kaskade
65).
But wait! There is more! Because to get this to work J1, gets two 'zips' (aka
'handacrosses' or '1s' in normal siteswap) instead of two selfs. The zips are
in the diagram represented by the back pointing arrows. So her entire throwing
sequence is pzspsppz (Note: The first zip in the first round should be thrown
as a normal self, meaning that the first actual zip is throw number 8). This
might all sound very complicated but it is a lot easier than it sounds, as the
zips come natural (if you are used to doing zips, that is). It might also be
helpful to know that the two zips are both from right to left so J1's right
hand will be doing no normal selfs (except for its very first throw) so the
her right hand will be starting with a self and then doing pass, pass, zip,
zip, pass, pass, zip, etc.
Pat 10:
In case anyone is interested, the (fourhanded) site swap for the Copenhagen
Countdown would is 9629669669969929. J1 does 92696992 and J2 starts one and
a half beats later and does 96696996 (Note: For  for a brief explanation of
fourhanded siteswap see Footnote 2 in the article in Cascade 65).
OK, enough explanations. Enjoy and remember that this pattern is not so difficult
 so if you are an ambidextrous 7club passer and this seems impossible you
are probably doing something wrong. If, however, this beauty seems easy  try
the way more challenging versions of the 'Oslo Countdown', or get another mad
passer and try one of the versions of the JaSoN's Countdown which is a pattern
where the feedees do the easy end of the Copenhagen Countdown. If, on the other
hand, you don't feel quite up for that but still want to do some more 'funky
7club passing', then go directly to the 'Bonus Pattern' at the end of the article.
This one is a real bastard as the sequence is 15 beats long (from each side,
that is), and furthermore because of collision danger. If you are planning on
just a little bit of success with this pattern do yourself the favour to learn
the 6club version. Just do one round of fourcount, one of threecount, one
of twocount, a onecount, a two count, a threecount, and then all over starting
with the other hand. The throwing sequence is pssspsspsppspss.
The original version of the Oslo Countdown is a synchronous pattern where both
jugglers do straight (!) passes  either on triples or doubles (mathematically
it is supposed to be triples, but doubles may  or may not  be easier to control).
It was courageously invented and attempted last summer with Magnus in the centre
of Oslo). Especially around the onecount the pattern gets a bit weird for J1
as the sequence goes (starting from throw number 8) … pass, hold, pass,
pass, zip, pass, empty hand, zip, pass, hold … Anyway  here it is. Good
luck. J1 starts with 4 clubs.
Pat 11:
If you can't get it work, don't worry  I have only managed to do three quarters
of it so far, but since that is counting down, up and down again it means that
it by no means is impossible. When we tried it in doubles we found that making
the fourcount very fast (try to do a 7club fourcount in doubles in stead
of triples to warm up). The onecount, on the other hand, should be nice and
slooooow.
Once you have tried your luck with this one you can try a version that is (possibly)
a bit easier. (I say 'possibly' because I have actually never done this one
as the only decent passing partner here in Copenhagen is JoePass!) there is
an asynchronous version that might be a bit easier, as all the passes are floaty
doubles (definitely doubles!), and as it contains no holds or empty hands. However
there is a self double, but hey  if you have gotten this far that shouldn't
be a problem. J1 starts with 4 clubs, and J2 starts one and a half beats later.
Pat 12:
The monster siteswap for that one would be
966966869669669669969929962966
where each juggler juggles the following:
1: 9668 966 96 9 92 926
2: 9666 966 96 9 96 966
(The underlined sequence is a mirror image of the Copenhagen Countdown!).
OK enough of these weirdies  there are still loads of possibilities of coming
up with other countdowns. I know that Tarim has come up with a few  but in
his versions J2 doesn't juggle anything like a countdown  therefore I have
left them out. Let's just finish off the countdown section with a pattern for
three people. Presenting: 'JaSoN's Countdown Feed' (little fanfare in the readers
mind).
This pattern I invented in Rotterdam last year with Simon and Nick, but unfortunately
they live in Germany and England, so I haven't had the chance to get it really
solid. The pattern has both an 11club version and a 12club version (I don't
remember which one we did in Rotterdam  but we had it working for a while so
it was there were probably only 11 pieces of plastic in the air).
Anyway, warm up by juggling it with 9 clubs. 'Feedee 1' (F1) does psspspps
while 'Feedee 2' (F2) starts four beats later thus doing sppspssp (don't get
confused by the hyphen  it, doesn't mean anything, is for the people that choose
to think of the countdown from 3 as a pssp followed by the reverse: spps). The
feeder (FF) does ultimate starting with two inside passes then going into the
sequence which is four outside passes, four inside passes etc. This is a nice
pattern and can be extended to the nfeed, the wfeed etc. In these cases only
the two jugglers on the end do the countdown  all the others are feeding. Well,
back to The Real Stuff.
To do the 11club version have have the two feedees do the easy end of the Copenhagen
Countdown (that is straight double passes and no zips). F1 starts with 4 clubs
and does psspspps. F2 has 3 clubs and starts at the same time as F1 doing sppspssp.
Both start with the right hand. FF starts at the same time as the feedees but
from the left hand and he does ultimate. He does one inside pass before going
into the real sequence which is four outside passes (starting from the right)
followed by four inside passes (also starting right, of course). All the passes
are normal (not floaty) straight doubles as this pattern is synchronous.
Pat 13:
FF is the centre line and F1 is the top line, and F2 is the bottom line. If
you don't understand the difference between inside and outside passes imagine
that you are walking along the middle line of the causal diagram passing in
the direction of the arrow (with the appropriate hand) each time you walk over
one of the letters.
In the 12club version all the passes are floaty doubles and F2 (this time
equipped with 4 clubs) starts with a left hand pass half a beat before the feeder
and a whole beat before F1. FF and F1 both start with the right hand. F2 starts
one throw earlier in the throwing sequence thus doing pspps before going into
the Copenhagen Countdown sequence. To get this to work FF will be crossing and
the feedees doing straight passes (as in the diagram), but it can also be done
with FF going straight, and the feedees doing crossing passes. Have fun!
Pat 14:
This last pattern has got its own chapter, not because it is better than the
others, but simply because it doesn't seem to be related to any of the other
patterns described here. It is a pppss and it is not too hard to juggle, but
lots of fun. J1 starts with 4 clubs and throws three crossing double passes
(not floaty) followed by two normal selfs. J2 starts at the same time as the
other and throws a self before starting the pppss sequence which goes: straight
single pass, straight single pass, straight triple pass, self, self. As this
pattern has odd length cycle it takes 10 beats before it repeats. This pattern
is a real jewel. Groove on this.
Pat 15:
OK, enough of this  next time it is popcorn time  'groovy baby'.
Patterns with a Cause  Top 
Author: Jon SkjerningRasmussen
Credits: Kaskade 68
And so it came to pass: new patterns were discovered and questions were asked, and in due time this article, the fourth of its kind, took form. Aiming to lure its readers into the vast regions of club passing anno 2002 this article explains, clarifies and elaborates on patterns, notations and diagrams, in a way that opens up these areas to beginners as well as more advanced passers. In other words: if you want to learn how to read causal diagrams and develop your own variations, read this. If you already know this and just want some of the new wild 7club patterns go straight to the second part. In the article I try to stay as simple as possible. Therefore I have moved much additional stuff and www links into the notes at the end of the article.
After writing three articles on 7club passing I was told that a lot of people
had read them but didn't understand the diagrams, so here I explain what you
need to know to read and use these diagrams. Let's start by looking at what
I consider the basic 6club passing pattern: the 3count (right pass, self,
self, left pass, self, self…) (see footnote 1).
Diagram 1:
To read the diagram it is enough to know that the first line represents one
juggler (J1) and the second line the other juggler (J2), R means 'right', L
means 'left', time goes from left to right and the distance from the first throw
(the first R) to the second throw (the first L) is one beat. The numbers are
not normally included but represent the normal twohanded siteswap values of
the throws, and will probably prove helpful to those who understand them  if
you don't understand siteswap, don't worry (see footnote 2), the diagrams explain
the patterns perfectly and much more visually. The diagram reads in the direction
of time (from left to right), and the arrows that stay in the same line (e.g.,
with J1) represent self throws while the arrows that go from one line to the
other are passes (e.g., from J1 to J2).
To find out what you have to do you can imagine that you are walking along your
line and doing what it says on each grey tile. In this pattern both jugglers
start at the same time with a right hand single pass to the other's left hand
(a straight pass), then one beat later, they throw a single left hand self (a
3) and then a right hand self, then a left hand single straight pass, a right
self and a left self, and then back to the beginning of the diagram. Normally
only one round of the pattern is shown, but some places I have put in two or
more to get a better feel of the continuity and the tricks.
When you get to the end of the diagram you simply go back to the beginning,
and if you have the diagram on paper you can actually cut it out and make a
loop of the strip.
"Causal Diagrams are very easy for a club juggler to read because an arrow that travels one beat along the chart happens, by a lucky chance, to be a Single. Similarly a two beat arrow is a Double, three beats for a Triple and so on" (The Compendium of Club Juggling p. 20).
In relation to siteswap you can say that the length of the arrow = x2 where
x is the normal twohanded siteswap value of the throw. So a 5 is (usually)
a triple as 52 = arrow length 3.
Here is the 4club solo pattern 534, (or cross triple, cross single, self double).
Diagram 2:
Especially in 7club passing a lot of patterns are asynchronous (i.e., no hands
throw at the same time), When that is the case the passes (but not the selfs)
are half a beat longer and are normally thrown as floaty singles, doubles, triples,
etc. In the diagram this is represented by two shifted lines of L's and R's,
as in diagrams 3 and 912.
Here are two rounds of 7club 3count with floaty double passes.
Diagram 3:
If you study the diagram you will notice that you can connect the arrows to
form three long lines (causal lines), going from the start to the end of the
pattern  that means that this is a 6club pattern. Why? Because the number
of object = the number of causal lines (in this case 3) + the number of hands
in use (in this case 4, as I here am only dealing with patterns where each juggler
uses both hands to juggle, but it works for any number of hands). A 6club,
2person pattern has 2 causal lines (as for example in diagram 3), an 8club
pattern has 4, and so on. This has to do with that the arrows don't represent
objects, but causes (in the sense that each club is thrown because another club
is arriving  see footnote 3), hence the name 'causal diagram'. Charley Dancey
explains:
"Each line in the Causal Diagram leads from one throw to the throw that
is caused by it" (The Compendium of Club Juggling p. 18).
So to find out how many objects there are in a given causal diagram, simply
draw a vertical line and see how many arrows it crosses and then add the number
of hands.
Now we come to a thing that is a bit tricky about causal diagrams: backwards
pointing arrows. That an arrow is pointing backwards in time doesn't, however,
mean that the objects are travelling backwards in time (sorry!), but it is because
the arrows don't represent objects but causes (if this sounds weird to you,
don't worry, as I said, you don't need to know it, just accept it  see footnote
4).
An arrow pointing back one beat is a 1 (or a zip or handacross), and an arrow
pointing back two beats is a 0 or an empty hand. An arrow pointing back to the
same spot is a 2 (normally a hold). Let Charlie explain again:
The 2's are shown as causal arrows that cause themselfs. This is not quite as crazy as it sounds, the plain English translation of this mathematical oddity is that you are holding an object because you are holding it.
The 1 … produces a causal arrow moving one beat to the left. It seems to be illogical but it actually means: to place a club into that hand you had to empty it first!
The 0, or empty hand, produces a highly unlikely looking arrow that moves two beats to the left. The meaning of this is: for the hand to be empty you must have made a throw from it [two beats] beforehand" (The Compendium of Club Juggling p. 21).
Here is one round of twoclub shower (31), two out of three clubs in a 3club
cascade (330), and then a hold (2). Notice that the zip and the empty hand are
in the hand where the arrow starts. Note also that in counting causal lines
backwards pointing arrows count negative, so actually there are 0 causal lines
going from the beginning to the end of the pattern, hence there are the same
amount of objects as there are hands (here two).
Diagram 4:
Here are the diagrams for J1 passing one club back and forth between her two
hands, while J2 has no clubs. As the arrows are pointing backwards here it means
that there are 3 causal lines (see footnote 5), with four hands that makes
one club.
Diagram 5:
An early double by J1 and an early triple by J2 in a 4count looks like this:
Diagram 6:
The answer to this is fairly simple. Each hand starts with 1+a clubs  a represents
the number of arrow pointing to the hand from beyond the start of the diagram.
In diagram 7 you see that there is one arrow pointing to J1's first L, one to
his first R and one to J2's first R. This means that J1 has two clubs in each
hand while J2 has two in the right and one in the left. If she wants to start
with a pass, she just waits one beat and has two clubs in the left hand. This
rule is easily applicable to most diagrams, but as faith will have it, the one
of the next patterns (diagram 9) is an exception where J1 has three in the right
and one in the left. This is because the left hand needs to be empty to receive
the first zip from the right hand. (A way to avoid this is to do a hold instead
of the first zip, but only in the first round).
Inventing new patterns using causal diagrams is very easy (except that often
the patterns you invent are not new), just draw a line of R L R L R L R L R
Ls for each juggler on a piece of paper and connect them all with each other,
if all letters are connected with one incoming and one outgoing arrow, it is
juggleable (in theory). If you have a computer you can use Wolfgang's wonderful
program JoePass! (see the links) which makes it even easier to play with causal
diagrams  and playing with them is the easiest way to learn to understand them.
You find the link at the end of this article.
In designing new patterns it is important to remember that each letter (L or
R) must have exactly one arrow starting and one ending there for the pattern
to be valid. When adding people to the pattern just add lines in this feed,
where feeder does pass, pass, self and the feedees do a 3count, all on singles.
Note that the feeder is in the middle, that way the arrows don't have to go
from the top line to the bottom line. If you do pattern where everyone passes
with everyone (like triangles or feasts) you need arrows from each line to each
other line.
Diagram 7:
In this pattern all three jugglers start simultaneously from the right hand,
the feeder and the top feedee with a pass, the bottom feedee with a self and
then a left pass.
It is also possible that the jugglers start at different times, like in the
normal 7club threecount (diagram 3), where J2 starts one and half beats later,
or in the 7club two count where J2 start one beat later (provided J2 wants
to start with a pass). Here is the causal diagram for that one  (it is shown
left handed just to annoy all them right handed passers!).
Diagram 8:
Here I show three rounds of the pattern, as one round consists of only two beats.
And now it's time to use your newly acquired knowledge about causal diagrams to learn some new 7club patterns invented during the winter and spring on JoePass!. As I don't have anyone to do serious passing with here in Copenhagen, I had to wait until EJC in Bremen to try them out with Iñaki some late night  and to tell you the truth, I was positively surprised, as I found them more interesting than I had expected. Well let's start where we started that long night with two 7club 3counts.
This first pattern we found quite difficult to juggle, but we managed to get
5 rounds of it, so it is definitely possible. The fourhanded siteswap (see footnote
6) for this pattern is 1029 (see footnote 7). The causal diagram should now
explain the rest.
Diagram 9:
To start this pattern J1 has 3 clubs in her right hand and 1 in the left. She
starts at the beginning of the diagram, throwing self crossing triples, left
straight pass, zip, and then the same starting from the left. J2 has 2 clubs
in his right hand and 1 in the left. He starts one and a half beats later doing
the same sequence as J1, except that his passes are crossing. As this pattern
is a 3count it can be juggled by J1 while J2 does a normal 3count (or a French
3count  see Kaskade 67 for this pattern explained). To go into it from a normal
3count do pass, self, self crossing triple, pass, zip, self crossing triple,
etc. It is of course also possible to throw only one round of this like a trick
in a normal (or French) 3count (this is probably easier than doing it continuously,
but I wouldn't know, as I just thought of it now).
The next pattern is 948 in fourhanded siteswap and has a very nice causal diagram.
Diagram 10:
Actually this pattern is a normal 3count with a 42 (see footnote 8) (self double,
hold) instead of the two normal selfs. This we first discovered after having
learned the pattern, and it actually feels very different from the normal 3count
 especially if the 2 is thrown instead of held.
The start is like in a normal 7club 3count, with each juggler just doing 42
instead of 33.
When I was asked to write this fourth article I of course tried to come up
with some new patterns for it. However, I ran into one problem, I kept inventing
'old' patterns, or very slight variations of them, but I think I managed to
come up with two new patterns. The first one is a bookends with a hold and the
second one I don't know how to classify, but is somehow related to the French
3count, but also a little popcornish.
The bookends is 97647.
Diagram 11:
To juggle it J1 has 4 clubs and starts at the beginning of the diagram cross
double, self, straight single, cross double, hold (or little funky 2throw).
J2 starts half a beat later (almost at the same time) and does straight double,
hold (or 2throw), straight double, self, cross single. This pattern is very
nice to juggle, since the hold gives it a funny and refreshing rhythm. I don't
think Iñaki and I managed to get it solid enough to throw the 2s every
time, so I don't know how that is, but I kinda like having holds in passing
patterns, it somehow gives them new potential, as you suddenly can put a whole
range of tricks in there.
The other 5count I managed to come up with is more simple, it is 96686 and
looks like this (see footnote 9):
Diagram 12:
J1 has 4 clubs and does straight double pass, self, self, self, straight self
double. J2 starts one and a half beats later and does straight self double,
cross double pass, self, self, self.
This pattern is really nice as it has three selfs left to play with. Siteswapwise
you can do 441, 531, 522, 423 or 342 as very nice variations. I really recommend
to try out trying all variations in a continuous pattern, as they are lovely
patterns in their own right. Actually we learned some of them as patterns before
we realised that they were variations of 96686, and it was almost disappointing
to realise what they were.
Well, I think that was all for me, and if all goes after the plan Sean Gandini
will write about popcorn feeds or something like that, next time.
1. Many people still consider the 4count to be the basic pattern,
but as that is a very onesided pattern, that limits the left hand to the odd
early double, I strongly recommend practicing all tricks from a 3count, as
this will enable you to be able to do all tricks from both sides and as it is
a much more balanced pattern. If you want to get into more complex patterns,
being used to do left hand passes makes it possible to do more than ten times
as many patterns (just imagine if in solo juggling the left hand always did
selfs  3's  how boring).
2. If, however, you do worry and want to learn about siteswap check out
the Internet.
3. This is not important to understand either, but basically causal diagrams
only deal with 'problems' (two hands and two clubs = no problem; two hands and
three clubs = one problem; four hands and seven clubs = three problems; etc.).
4. But if you are interested, check out
http://www.freedome.org/orr/PassingPage/ClubPassing/Help.htm
(Itzik Orr).
and an article about mhn & causals
(Christophe Préchac)
5. That there is negative one causal lines makes sense when you consider
that there is nothing that causes the club to be passed to the other hand (except,
of course, the mind of the juggler). In 'normal' juggling an object is thrown
when another object approaches the hand, in that way the approaching object
can be said to be the cause of the following throw.
6. For explanation of fourhanded siteswap see Kaskade 65. Briefly can
be said that to get 'normal' siteswap simply divide by two. Odd numbers are
floaty passes and even numbers are selfs. Note that in fourhanded siteswap the
two jugglers share the throws, so that in the sequence 'abcde' J1 does 'acebd',
while J2 does 'bdace'.
7. 10 reads ten and not one zero, which is quite logical as 1s are virtually
impossible to throw in fourhanded siteswaps, as they would be very fast handacrosses
from one juggler to the other.
8. When I write about what one juggler does I often use normal twohanded
siteswap  I hope this it is n't too confusing.
9. Actually this pattern is a 5count popcorn with an early double, if
the popcorn is 86867, not that it really matters, but that just shows how all
the patterns are related. For more on this see the last issue of Kaskade (67).
7 o?clock pop!  Top 
Author: Jon SkjerningRasmussen
Credits: Kaskade 67
This third article in my series on 7club passing is about one of my favourite
branches of patterns: 'Popcorns', and I must confess that most of these patterns
are not my inventions. It is mainly thanks to Sean Gandini that I can present
this section. I have, however, taken some of the patterns a bit further to funk
up some already very funky patterns. Before we get into the patterns just a
few words on what popcorns are.
As I will mainly be dealing with 7 club popcorns, I won't need to get into Gandini's
technical definitions here. In this section it is sufficient to say that a 7club
popcorn is one where one juggler juggles 4 clubs for a few beats while the other
does 3 at the same speed (or maybe at a different speed?). Normally the 4 clubs
are juggled as triplesingle, but they might as well be in the 4club fountain
style. Some people prefer the term Twin Towers for this variation, but I don't
know about that…
The classic popcorn is a 6count (which makes it onesided), and both jugglers
do normal selfs from the left while the right hand does: crossing triple self,
straight double pass, single self. I normally start with the triple, and the
other juggler waits three beats and then starts with her triple. The timing
in the start is the same as in normal boring righthanded 7club shower (that
is, wait until the double is half way and then start  but with a self triple!).
Pat 16:
This is a great pattern and it has heaps of variations. Try for instance to
throw the triples as backcrosses or do one round of the Twin Towers, in stead
of the triplesingle (that is 44 instead of 53). As each juggler throws three
single selfs in a row after the pass, starting with the left hand. Try to substitute
this for one round of lefthanded 441 or 531 (each of which has its own body
variations). 531 is particularly spectacular as the 5 is thrown at the same
time as the other juggler's normal self triple. Another variation that I just
thought of now is to throw the double pass as a straight self double, followed
by a left crossing single pass (which then arrives on time). The possibilities
are infinite once you start using a pattern like this as a base pattern for
tricks and syncopations.
As this popcorn is a 6count it is incredibly easy to pick up when you drop
 once you know how to (picking up that is, we all know how to drop). To practice
this, put 1 club at each juggler's feet and do very slow asynchronous shower
on doubles with the remaining 5 clubs while 'holding through the gap' (that
is, never pass when you are just holding two clubs). In causal diagram it looks
like this:
Pat 17:
Whenever you want, pick up your extra club just after your pass and then start
with your self triple as your partner's pass is half way. Once you can pick
up in this pattern you can keep it going almost forever.
The only drawback about this pattern is that it is onesided… But fear
not here comes a bothsided version. Presenting the 7count Popcorn:
To juggle this pattern all you have to do is:
add an extra self,
make your passes a bit more floaty,
convince your partner that this won't work unless she crosses her passes.
This pattern is a real beauty and can actually be even more relaxed than the
6count as you don't have to concentrate on keeping your passes lowish.
Pat 18:
Try the same variations as in the 6count version. Now you can chose where to
put the 441 or the 531 as you have 4 selfs to play with. Or you can do 3club
site swaps with a sequence of 4, like the ultra funky 5340. If done continually
you can actually add an extra club and do a floaty single pass instead of the
0 (See pat. 26 below).
Making the double pass a straight self (a normal 4), followed by a floaty single
pass (crossing if you were doing straights and vice versa), makes a fantastic
pattern (10666867 in fourhanded siteswap  each juggler does 10687666  see
footnote 1). If you can both juggle 534 solo you have a bigger chance of success,
as you throw a righthanded 534 followed by a floaty single pass and three selfs
and then the same but lefthanded.
Pat 19:
For bigger chance of success in this pattern let J1 start like in the normal
7count popcorn, as it can be quite hard otherwise to get the timing right for
J2. As you probably normally tend to time your triples after the incoming double
passes it will probably take a few attempts to get used to receiving single
passes (not to mention throwing them while looking up at your triple!)  but
if you take the time to learn it you will be rewarded by extra thrill, and you
will be able to go on to the next pattern… If, however, you give up here
then move on to pattern 21, which is quite a lot easier.
OK, you are still here! For extra funk you can put all the variations of the
6count popcorn into it, as there are still three selfs left to play with. Here
it is shown with J1 doing a popcorn with a 531 (106871062) while J2 does the
Twin Towers version with a 441 (8887882).
Pat 20:
Obviously this is quite difficult, and I recommend using pat. 19 as base pattern,
and then putting in the siteswaps (and body moves) once you have it running
smoothly.
A bothhanded popcorn can also be done on a 5count where each juggler does
crossing self triple, self, floaty single pass, self, self (J1 straight, J2
crossing). This pattern is not actually that difficult, though still lovely.
Pat 21:
The siteswap, for those who need that kind of information: 106667 (each juggler
does 106766). As a self triple is thrown every 5 beats it will be the same club
that does all the triples = very easy to remember.
For syncopations there are not that many possibilities, as there are only two
selfs, there not so many obvious site swap variations. However 42 is nice, especially
if you throw the 2 as a low self single  or whatever you can come up with.
(51 unfortunately doesn't work  'clash'). Try also throwing an extra self triple
on the beat right before the normal triple, this means that you get a zip instead
of self after the second triple (got that? Well basically you just throw 551
before the pass instead of 353.
Reversing the logic of before (where we changed the 7count so that we passed
a single one beat later) we can likewise throw what would be an early double
followed by a hold  which again opens new possibilities, as you now have a
hold and your two selfs (that is a 233) to play with. Try, for instance, to
throw a 530, a 440 or a 413 there, or even a 512 (with or without actually throwing
the 2). Here you can see these four variations with J1 doing 413 and 512 and
J2 doing 440 and 530.
Pat 22:
Now we have had 5, 6 and 7count popcorns, but also 4count and 3count are
possible.
To do a 4count (onesided) popcorn, reverse the throwing rhythm of the well
known 7 club 4count passing pattern 'tripleself', so that the triples are
selfs and the right hand singles are passes (the left hand still only throws
single selfs). This mightn't be so interesting in itself, but it can be thrown
towards a 'tripleself' or as a trick in it. I haven't bothered working out
tricks and syncopations for this as it's a righthanded pattern, and I prefer
to use both halves of my brain!
More interesting (for me) is the 3count versions of popcorn. Following the
logic of the previous patterns the basic 3count version of popcorn would be
throwing a self triple followed by a single self and then a very quick pass
(a low flat):
Pat 23:
This pattern is almost impossible to do nicely (or even not nicely)  it might
even be dangerous to attempt this with clubs, as the pass is a 5, (or what would
be a 2,5 in solo juggling). However I've been told that it is possible (though
still stupidly difficult) to do it with rings. To make it juggleable with clubs
it is, however, possible to throw every pass one beat earlier and as a single
or to throw every pass on the same beat as normal but as a single (the passes
are in both cases straight if you were crossing and vice versa). Both emerging
patterns will have a hold (or a funky little 2throw, if you want) the siteswaps
are 1047 and 1074. (For 8 clubs try 'triple self, pass, pass': 1077).
Pat 24:
Pat 25:
Let's have a pattern that has been around for a few years, a pattern that may
or may not be a popcorn, namely the French 3count, or the 867  a real beauty
once you crack it.
Pat 26:
J1 starts with a self double and then a floaty straight single pass followed
by a self single. J2 starts one and a half beats later with a left self double,
then a right floaty single crossing pass and a left self.
And for the ones who still haven't had enough I present a last minute wild
8club popcornish thing that I invented with Dani in Barcelona a few days ago
 it is a 7count, and it rocks, what more can I say. We have almost done a
whole round of it, but it feels very right. J1 passes straight singles and crossing
doubles, J2 vice versa. To start let J2 start with a left hand self triple immediately
followed by a self triple by J1. as I'm running out of article space I'll let
this siteswap (101066897  each juggler does 106910687) and the casual diagram
speak for itself.
Pat: 27
Pop 'til you drop!
Footnote:
1 For a brief explanation of this see Kaskade 65. If you don't have that then
just remember that odd numbers are passes and even are selfs and if you want
the "normal" siteswap numbers just divide by 2.
Passing Siteswap (4hands Siteswap)  Top 
Author: Norihide Tokushige
Original PDF version available at: http://www.cc.uryukyu.ac.jp/~hide/siteswap.pdf
There are a couple of variations of siteswap notation for passing. For example, Buhler–Graham–Wright introduced a notion of juggling poset. Any passing siteswap can be represented by using a juggling poset, but it is not so handy. On the other hand, we are familiar with the usual siteswap, i.e., siteswap for two hands. Why not interpret the usual siteswap as a siteswap for passing? In this note, we propose several ways of interpretation from the usual siteswap to the passing siteswap. We can not obtain all passing patterns in this way, but we can still find infinitely many new, interesting passing siteswaps. One of the good points of our method is the simplicity of the notation. For example, 7 club 3count is “966,” Jim’s 3count is “7746666,” or Flurry is “726” in our notation.
Remember how 77722 goes in the usual siteswap. We associate the right hand and the left hand alternately to the sequence in the following
7 7 7 2 2 7 7 7 2 2 ... R L R L R L R L R L ...
Now two jugglers, say Hide and Tomoko, juggle this sequence as a passing pattern. So they associate H and T instead of R and L.
7 7 7 2 2 7 7 7 2 2 ... H T H T H T H T H T ...
But both Hide and Tomoko have two hands, they actually juggle as follows:
number : 7 7 7 2 2 7 7 7 2 2 ... Hide/Tomoko : H T H T H T H T H T ... hand : R R L L R R L L R R ... club : 1 2 3 4 5 4 5 1 2 3 ...
Then
this is a 5 clubs passing pattern, and it looks like 7 club 1count with some
hand acrosses. Hide’s sequence is 77272 and Tomoko’s sequence is 72772.
Looking at the sequence more carefully, we find that Hide’s 7 is straight
pass, while Tomoko’s 7 is cross pass. (We assume that they are passing in
the face to face position.) In the usual siteswap 2 means holding a prop, but
in our case 2 means the (self) hand across.
Next, imagine Hide and Tomoko are
doing 77722 in the above sense. If we identify Hide’s right and left hands
with a big Right hand, and identify Tomoko’s right and left hands with a
big Left hand, then we get a picture of the usual 77722 siteswap by this imaginary
big juggler — let’s call him Ninja. This is the basic idea of how to
connect the usual siteswap and our passing siteswap.
Ninja’s
asynchronous siteswap such as 77722 is interpreted as an asynchronous passing
siteswap for Hide and Tomoko. The rule of the interpretation is the following:
(rule)  Ninja  :  R  L  R  L 
H & T  :  HR  TR  HL  TL 
Hide
starts first with his right hand, and then Tomoko’s right hand follows. Hide
takes Ninja’s right hand, and Tomoko takes Ninja’s left hand. This implies
that even numbers are self, and odd numbers are pass. As for even numbers, multiple
of 4 (0,4,8,...) is straight self, and even but not multiple of 4 (2,6,10,...)
is cross self.
More practically,
numberself throw 0empty hand 2hand across 4holding a club or flourish 6cross single spin 8straight double spin 10cross triple spin
Odd numbers are a little bit
tricky. The same number for Hide and for Tomoko means different type of pass.
numberHide's pass Tomoko's pass spin 5cross straight half? (fast) 7straight cross single (slow) 9cross straight double 11straight cross triple
Let us see an example. 7777266 is a 6 club passing pattern known as Mild Madness.
number : 7 7 7 7 2 6 6 7 7 7 7 2 6 6 7 7 7 7 2 6 6 Hide/Tomoko : H T H T H T H T H T H T H T H T H T H T H hand : R R L L R R L L R R L L R R L L R R L L R pass / self : p p p p s s s p p p p s s s p p p p s s s cross / straight : s c s c c c c c s c s c c c s c s c c c c club : 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 1 2 3 4 6 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 5
Hide’s sequence is 7726776, that is pass, pass, hand across, self, pass, pass, self, and all passes are straight. Tomoko’s sequence is 7767726, that is pass, pass, self, pass, pass, hand across, self, and all passes are cross.
Ninja’s synchronized siteswap is translated
into a synchronized passing siteswap for Hide and Tomoko. Synchronized passing
means that at each time two hands (not necessarily two hands of one juggler) are
position of throwing clubs. There are three different translations — HT,
RR, RL.
Hide and Tomoko take Ninja’s sequence alternately. The rule is as follows.
(rule)  Ninja  :  (R,L)  (R,L) 
H & T  :  (HR,HL)  (TL,TR) 
Ninja’s right corresponds to Hide’s right and Tomoko’s left. Ninja’s left corresponds to Hide’s left and Tomoko’s right. A multiple of 4 (0,4,8,...) is self, and pass is otherwise (2,6,10...). A number with “x” is cross, and a number without “x” is straight.
2, 6, 10, ... : straight pass 2x, 6x, 10x, ... : cross pass 0, 4, 8, ... : straight self 4x, 8x, 12x, ... : cross self
For example, (6,6) is the 6 club synchronized 1count. Let us see another example. (6,4)(6x,4)(4,6)(4,6x) is a 5 club pattern. If you do 4 as a single straight self, this pattern looks like 5 club 1count with extra single selves.
number : (6,4) (6x,4) (4,6) (4,6x) (6,4) (6x,4) (4,6) (4,6x)H / T : H H T T H H T T H H T T H H T TR / L : R L L R R L L R R L L R R L L Rp / s : p s p s s p s p p s p s s p s pc / s : s s c s s s s c s s c s s s s cclub : 1 2 3 4 5 2 1 4 5 3 1 2 4 3 5 2
Hide’s sequence is (6,4)(4,6), that is (straight pass, straight self) (straight self, straight pass). Tomoko’s sequence is (4,6x)(6x,4) if we write numbers in (right, left) order and this is (straight self, cross pass)(cross pass, straight self).
Hide’s right and Tomoko’s right are synchronized, and so both their left hands as well. The rule is as follows.
(rule)  Ninja  :  (R,L)  (R,L) 
H & T  :  (HR,TR)  (HL,TL) 
Hide takes Ninja’s right and Tomoko takes Ninja’s left. A number with “x” is pass, and a number without “x” is self. For self, a multiple of 4 is straight. For pass, a multiple of 4 is cross.
2, 6, 10, ... : cross self 2x, 6x, 10x, ... : straight pass 0, 4, 8, ... : straight self 4x, 8x, 12x, ... : cross pass
For example, (6x,6x) is the 6 club asynchronous 1count, (6x,6x)(6,6) is the 6 club 2count. Let us see another 6 club passing pattern (8x,6)(6,8)(2,6x). This is a neat variation of 3count passing.
number : (8x,6) (6,8) (2,6x) (8x,6) (6,8) (2,6x) (8x,6) (6,8) (2,6x) H / T : H T H T H T H T H T H T H T H T H TR / L : R R L L R R L L R R L L R R L L R Rp / s : p s s s s p p s s s s p p s s s s pc / s : c c c s c s c c c s c s c c c s c sclub : 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 2 3 1 6 4 6 2 3 5 4 1
Hide’s sequence is 8x,6,2
that is pass, self, self (all cross). Tomoko’s sequence is 6,8,6x that is
self, self, pass (cross, straight, straight).
Hide’s right and Tomoko’s left are synchronized. The rule is as follows.
(rule)  Ninja  :  (R,L)  (R,L) 
H & T  :  (TL,HR)  (TR,HL) 
Hide takes Ninja’s left and Tomoko takes Ninja’s right. A number with “x” is pass, and a number without “x” is self. A multiple of 4 is straight for both pass and self.
2, 6, 10, ... : cross self 2x, 6x, 10x, ... : cross pass 0, 4, 8, ... : straight self 4x, 8x, 12x, ... : straight pass
For example, (8x,6)(6,8x) is the 7 club 2count, (10,6)(6,6)(8x,6)(6,10)(6,6)(6,8x) is the 7 club popcorn.
An asynchronous pattern can be transformed to a synchronized pattern by shifting one beat on one side of ladder diagram. The rule is the following:
(rule)  async sequence ab > sync sequence (p,q) 
p = a if a is even  
p = (a1)x if a is odd  
q = b if b is even  
q = (b+1)x if b is odd 
For this conversion, we need to
divide an asynchronous sequence into two digits segments. For example, 77722 is
transformed as follows.
77 72 27 77 22 > (6x,8x)(6x,2)(2,8x)(6x,8x)(2,2)
In this case, the only change is the length
of pass. Hide’s pass decreases one beat, while Tomoko’s pass increases
one beat. (No changes for self, no changes for the
direction(cross/straight)
of pass.)
sequence : 77 72 27 77 22 > (6x,8x) (6x,2) (2,8x) (6x,8x) (2,2)Hide/Tomoko : HT HT HT HT HT H T H T H T H T H Thand : RR LL RR LL RR R R L L R R L L R R
In this case, the only change is the length of pass. Hide’s pass increases one beat, while Tomoko’s pass decreases one beat. (No changes for self, no changes for the direction(cross/straight) of pass.)
sequence : 27 77 22 77 22 > (2,8x) (6x,8x) (2,2) (6x,8x) (6x,2)Hide/Tomoko : TH TH TH TH TH T H T H T H T H T Hhand : LR RL LR RL LR L R R L L R R L L R
For practical convenience for doing RL pattern, Tomoko can start the same sequence as asynchronous pattern after one beat pause.
sequence : 7 77 22 77 22 > (,8x) (6x,8x) (2,2) (6x,8x) (6x,2)Hide/Tomoko : TH TH TH TH TH T H T H T H T H T Hhand : R RL LR RL LR  R R L L R R L L R
There
are many variations of 3count and PPS passing patterns for RR, RL type coming
from ground state siteswaps.
Notation: Hide takes a sequence from the left
part, and Tomoko takes a sequence from the right part.
{8x62,86x2}
* {68x6,686x,a8x2,ax82}
For example, Hide takes 8x62, and Tomoko takes 686x. Then, (8x,6)(6,8)(2,6x) is a 3count pattern for RR and RL. In the above case, there are 2 * 4 = 8 different 3count patterns for RR (and 8 for RL, too). (Remember 2 means hand across, 6 means single, 8 means double, a means triple. Numbers with x means pass, numbers without x means self. For self, 2,6,a are cross, 8 is straight. For RR type, 6x, ax are straight pass, 8x is cross pass. For RL type, 6x, ax are cross pass, 8x is straight pass.)
3count
{88x2,ax62,666x}
* {88x2,ax62,666x}
{8x82,66x6,a6x2} * {8x82,66x6,a6x2}
{6x62} * {88x6,886x,ax66,a66x}
{6x82}
* {86x6,8x66}
{8x62,86x2} * {68x6,686x,a8x2,ax82}
PPS
{8x8x2,ax6x2,66x6x}
{6x6x2}
* {8x8x6,8x86x,a6x6x,ax6x6}
{6x8x2} * {86x6x,8x66x}
3count
{6x68,6xa4,668x,6ax4,848x,8ax2}
* {886x,88x6,a8x4,ax66,ax84,a66x}
{8xa4,86x8} * {68x6,a46x,a8x2,ax46,ax82}
{6x88,688x,6ax6,8x68,a48x,aax2}
* {8x66,8x84,a6x4}
{6xa6,6ax6,a48x,aax2} * {86x6,8x66,8x84,a6x4}
{68xa,8a6x,axa4,88x8,ax68}
* {666x,68x4,846x,88x2,ax44,ax62}
{aa6x,ax88,a8x8,axa6} * {66x4,86x2,8x44,8x62}
{8xa6,a6x8,8x88}
* {8x46,8x82,a6x2}
PPS
{6x66x,6x8x4}
* {88x8x,8ax6x,axax4,ax68x,6x8xa}
{6x6x4} * {a8x8x,aax6x,ax88x,axax6}
{6x6x8,8xax2}
* {8x8x6,ax6x6,8x86x,a6x6x}
{6x86x,6x8x6} * {86x8x,8xax4,8x68x,6x6ax}
{6x8x8,6xa6x,axax2,68x8x,6ax6x,ax48x,axax2}
* {86x6x,8x66x,8x8x4,ax6x4}
{8x66x} * {axax2}
{8x8x8} * {8x8x2,ax6x2}
{8xa6x,ax6x8}
* {8x46x,8x8x2,ax6x2}
1count
{6x6x6x}
* {8x8x8x,8xax6x}
Norihide Tokushige
College of Education,
Ryukyu University
Nishihara, Okinawa, 9010213 JAPAN
hide@edu.uryukyu.ac.jp
Popcorns I  Top 
Author: Sean Gandini
Credits: Kaskade 69
See the following part, Popcorns II:
asymmetry, synchronicity and more people
Download a ZIP archive with popcorn
patterns for JoePass!.
This article is an abbreviated version of extensive exploration of popcorns that we have undertaken over the last couple of years. Although the first popcorns where distinctively club patterns, the patterns described here are worth trying with all the other classic juggling props, and indeed any other that you can think of.
We have taken for granted a basic understanding of siteswaps and less importantly for this article causal diagrams. Causal Diagrams where explained in the last issue of Kaskade (68). If you are unfamiliar with siteswaps I urge you to spend the couple of hours it takes to gain an understanding of them, for they are an invaluable tool in understanding a myriad of wonderfull juggling patterns.
The passing notation we use is Jack Boyce's extension of classical siteswaps. All patterns are given from the perspective of a 2 handed juggler.
Because of lack of space I haven't included most of the charts. I have put them up on our Internet site where you can also find for sale the laminated versions.
For the purpose of this article we will define popcorn passing patterns as jugglers taking turns at popping. Popping in this context means lifting into an amount of objects higher than the one they previously had and then throwing the extra things back out. We shall return and be more specific with this definition but for now it should serve us well.
As already thoroughly defined in this column the classic popcorn is <5 3 4p 3 3 3  3 3 3 5 3 4p > which since it is symmetrical we can call 5 3 4p 3 3 3
Now for our purposes we want to change the 53 to 44 so as to go from the most simple 4 object pattern to the most simple 3 object pattern. So we get 4 4 4p 3 3 3
Ok so that's a popcorn in its basic state, in this case you juggle 4 for a bit, throw a pass and then juggle 3 for a bit.
So now what we want to do is find all the symmetric patterns of the above form that go from 3 to 4 objects. By Symmetric I mean patterns where both jugglers do the same thing, in this case out of time with each other.
The chart below is the expansion:
Horizontally we expand by adding a 3 on one side of the pass and a 4 on the other. This means that each step along the chart gives each juggler an extra throw of the 2 solo patterns.  
Vertically we expand by adding and removing 3s by increasing and decreasing the pass by half a beat. So for example in club juggling decreasing the pass from a 4 to a 3.5 means doing a floaty single instead of a normal double. 
7 objects popcorn chart
5.5p3333  45.5p33333  445.5p333333  4445.5p3333333  44445.5p33333333  444445.5p333333333 
5p333  45p3333  445p33333  4445p333333  44445p3333333  444445p33333333 
4.5p33  44.5p333  444.5p3333  4444.5p33333  44444.5p333333  444444.5p3333333 
4p3  44p33  444p333  4444p3333  44444p33333  444444p333333 
3.5p  43.5p3  443.5p33  4443.5p333  44443.5p3333  444443.5p33333 
43p  443p3  4443p33  44443p333  444443p3333  
442.5p  4442.5p3  44442.5p33  444442.5p333  
4442p  44442p3  444442p33  
44441.5p  444441.5p3  
444441p3 
The chart expands to infinity upwards and to the right
There are a lot of fun patterns here! Over the last year we have juggled most of them. The lower extremities tend to be the hardest. Our problems started with the 2.5 passes. In principle these are faster than an ordinary 3. We got round it by really slowing down our 4s. I initially included the 1ps,1.5ps and 2ps for aesthetic reasons but have realised that one can turn them into interesting patterns by giving the club, as opposed to passing it.
Notice interestingly that the patterns on the column furthest to the left, 3.5p, 4p3, 4.5p33, 5p333, 5.5p3333 are the usual 7 objects 1count, 2count, 3count, 4count and 5count respectively. Here we encounter our first dilemma since each juggler lifts into the new amount of objects for 0 beats. Are they popcorns?
For a more thorough understanding of the popcorn progression it might help to look at the causal diagram chart for the seven object chart. Sometimes diagrams can speak more than words or numbers.
So now lets look at 8 object popcorns.
There is a chart where both jugglers do the same thing in time with each other, patterns like 46p33, however for now we will concentrate on patterns where the jugglers are symmetrically staggered in time. This means both jugglers do the same thing at different times.
So the staggered chart has 2 passes, each juggler lifting from 3 objects to 5 objects.
5.5p5.5p333  55.5p5.5p3333  555.5p5.5p33333  5555.5p5.5p333333  55555.5p5.5p3333333  555555.5p5.5p33333333 
5p5p33  55p5p333  555p5p3333  5555p5p33333  55555p5p333333  555555p5p3333333 
4.5p4.53p  54.5p4.5p33  554.5p4.5p333  5554.55p4.5p3333  55554.55p4.5p33333  555554.55p4.5p333333 
4p4p  54p4p3  554p4p33  5554p4p333  55554p4p3333  555554p4p33333 
53.5p3.5p  553.5p3.5p3  5553.5p3.5p33  55553.5p3.5p333  555553.5p3.5p3333  
553p3p  5553p3p3  55553p3p33  555553p3p333 
We started learning the patterns above with rings so as not to have to deal with spin. The ones we found easiest to start with where the longer versions of ……4p4p….. With these you have time to steady your 5 object pattern before having to throw out. However if you find five difficult perhaps the shorter patterns are easier. With clubs we started with 54p4p3 with the 5 a triple and the 4s doubles. We also do the above long pass with the fives as doubles.
So back to the charts, here are the two 9 object charts In the first chart
each juggler alternates between 4 and 5 object patterns while in the second
it is between 3 and 6 object patterns.
9 objects 1 pass
6.5p4444  56.5p44444  556.5p444444  5556.5p4444444  55556.5p44444444  555556.5p444444444 
6p444  56p4444  556p44444  5556p444444  55556p4444444  555556p44444444 
5.5p44  55.5p444  555.5p4444  5555.5p44444  55555.5p444444  555555.5p4444444 
5p4  55p44  555p444  5555p4444  55555p44444  555555p444444 
4.5p  54.5p4  554.5p44  5554.5p444  55554.5p4444  555554.5p44444 
54p  554p4  5554p44  55554p444  555554p4444  
553.5p  5553.5p4  55553.5p44  555553.5p444  
5553p  55553p4  555553p44 
9 objects 3 passes
6.5p6.5p6.5p3333  66.5p6.5p6.5p33333  666.5p6.5p6.5p333333  6666.5p6.5p6.5p3333333  66666.5p6.5p6.5p33333333 
6p6p6p333  66p6p6p3333  666p6p6p33333  6666p6p6p333333  66666p6p6p3333333 
5.5p5.5p5.5p33  65.5p5.5p5.5p333  665.5p5.5p5.5p3333  6665.5p5.5p5.5p33333  66665.5p5.5p5.5p333333 
5p5p5p3  65p5p5p33  665p5p5p333  6665p5p5p3333  66665p5p5p33333 
4.5p4.5p4.5p  64.5p4.5p4.5p3  664.5p4.5p4.5p33  6664.5p4.5p4.5p333  66664.5p4.5p4.5p3333 
64p4p4p  664p4p4p3  6664p4p4p33  66664p4p4p333  
663.5p3.5p3.5p  6663.5p3.5p3.5p3  66663.5p3.5p3.5p33  
6663p3p3p  66663p3p3p3 
We haven't yet managed the 3 pass versions with clubs. I would love to see them!
Notice that for now we are just listing popcorns where the lowest amount of objects juggled is 3. There are however popcorns which go from 2 objects to 4 objects, from 0 to 6 or indeed any combination that you care to think of!
Earlier we changed the classic popcorn from 53 to 44. We can now do the opposite and replace any series of throws by their siteswap equivalent. So for example classic popcorn has 3 selfs (siteswap 3) throws which we can replace by any period 3 siteswap. Ie 522, 441, 531, 342…
The other fun thing one can do is synchopate the passes as well. So for example 334p4p55 can become 335p3p55!
And last but not least you can apply the principle of late and early passes that one does in 4 count passing. So in classic popcorn 444p333 one of the jugglers can do 45p3333. In club passing this could be a crossing triple pass.
Up to now we have only considered patterns that leave ground state and return to ground state. There are off course a whole family of patterns where this is not the case. For example one can draw up the chart of popcorns that go from 3 shower to 4 shower. The problem is that we cannot do this without transition throws. The resulting patterns are very interesting but lack the qualities that I would call popcorn. To clarify I would redefine popcorns as going from ground state to ground state. This implies that contrary to what one might think not all passing patterns are popcorns. Next article we will look more in detail at what we mean as ground state as well as all kinds of hybrid popcorns.
I hope that you will find some interesting patterns to play with in the ideas above.
Thanks for Wolfgang Westerboer, JiBe and Jon SkjerningRasmussen for their help writing this article.
See the following part, Popcorns
II: asymmetry, synchronicity and more people
Download a ZIP archive with popcorn
patterns for JoePass!.
An extended version of this article including all the charts can be found at
www.gandinijuggling.com
Jack Boyce's passing notation http://juggleanim.sourceforge.net/doc/notation.html
Christophe Prechac's extremely technical but very interesting pages, See particularly
his article on generating all symmetric passing patterns from 2 handed siteswaps.
http://pogo5.free.fr/juggling/mhn&causal.html
Wolfgang Westerboers fantastic passing animator http://www.koelnvention.de/software/index.html
Takeaway Patterns  Top 
Author: Sean Gandini
Credits: Kaskade 52
These are a group of fun 3object twoperson patterns. I will describe them
as ball patterns but obviously they work for all the standard objects. The basic
concept behind takeaway patterns is the replacement of hands within a juggling
pattern. That's it. One person juggles, the other takes some or all of the pattern
away. Hence the name "takeaway".
The first bunch of patterns are just cyclic replacements. By this, I mean patterns
that repeat in nice concise loops, like pop music. You juggle for three beats,
I juggle for three beats, then we start all over again.
In traditional group juggling these cycles tended to be quite straightforward.
Cycles of 2, 3 or 4 throws. We have pushed it further by generalising. Our generalisation
is that on any given beat there can be a replacement; so the replacing need
not happen as neatly or as regularly as described above. But more of that later.
A word on positions: Contrary to the Kama Sutra and for simplicity's sake we
will limit ourselfs to a simple number of positions. Obviously you can extrapolate
at will.
In an idealised scenario the balls stay in place and the hands weave around
them. This is easier said than done. There is a tendency to give the balls to
the taker. In this respect a clarity of counts is very useful. One of the most
common drops on takeaways is not being sure if the other person is taking or
not, "the hovering hands". Help your partner by being as clear as
you can.
Side by side.
Let's assume that the two jugglers are standing (sitting, lying) side by side. Illustration 1. Our jugglers are called Rachid and Shamira. In the simplest possible scenario Rachid juggles 3 objects. At any point Shamira can replace either of Rachid's hands. If one thinks of the 3 balls as independent from the hands, then any landing ball can be caught by any of the free hands. Think for a moment of a juggling pattern as floating in space. There are two points where the hands meet the balls, it is at those points that the replacing can happen. For simplicity's sake we shall begin by replacing right with right and left with left. By this I mean that a ball thrown from a left hand will always be caught by a right hand and vice versa. Whether this hand is mine, yours, the pope's or a zebra's is unimportant. This restriction is purely for simplicity and to provisionally limit the amount of patterns involved. As we shall see later we can lift the restriction to generate a whole other family of patterns.
3/3 Out
Let's start by learning 3/3. The notation 3/3 means that each juggler catches
three times. So we get a 6 beat cycle that goes:
For simplicity's sake we will also refer to the two closest hands as inside
hands and the two furtheraway hands as outside hands. (Illustration 1).
Rachid starts with 2 Balls in the Right Hand and 1 Ball in the Left Hand. He
throws the first ball from his right hand to Shamira's outside hand. (Illustration
2). She then takes the second ball with her inside hand (Illustration 3) followed
by the third ball with her the outside hand (Illustration 4). Three catches
in all.
Rachid then does the same, his outside hand followed by his inside hand followed
by his outside hand (Illustrations 5,6,7). And so on ad infinitum (or not).
This pattern is quite instinctive to most westerners. Remember that you always
take away from the outside hand first. If you colour code the balls you will
always end up with the same balls in the same hands in the same order. So if
you start by taking a mauve ball with your outside hand, both of you will take
the mauve ball as your first ball with your outside hand. Now what could be
easier? You take the balls and you give them straight back.
Although this pattern is easy to do without counting I would encourage you to
start by counting it. The more you count now the easier it will be not to count
later.
3/3 In
Same idea only the inside hands take first. This is a lot harder. You have to
reach right across your partner. The colour coding works as well. As you learn
this pattern you will find that there is a pleasant weaving that begins to happen
between the inside hands. (Illustrations 8, 9, 10)
5/5 Out
This is very similar to the above but one waits longer between takings. The
extra wait is what makes this pattern slightly tricky for most people. On the
other hand one has longer to steady the pattern. This is a very useful pattern
for learning odd counts. Needless to say the initial colour coding is no longer
valid.
5/5 In
Included for thoroughness. Same as 3/3 in but with two extra juggling beats.
2/2
Now things start to get interesting but tricky. What is odd about this one is
that once the pattern gets going you end up catching your own first ball. It
really helps to slow this down as much as you can. Take each throw one at a
time and count it out loud. Note that both jugglers do slightly different things.
One does Inside Hand followed by Outside Hand whilst the other does Outside
Hand followed by Inside Hand. This pattern is not symmetrical. By this I mean
that you get a different pattern if Shamira starts from the one you would get
if Rachid started. (Illustrations 1115)
1/1 Out
Outside hand to outside hand is what is usually called a share. It is simply
a shared 3 ball cascade. This is one of the most common 2 person juggling patterns.
(Illustration 16)
1/1 In
The other 1/1 pattern, Inside hand to inside Hand, is wonderfully different
and seldom seen. (Illustration 17)
4/4
I think by this point it becomes selfexplanatory. This is more of the same.
The two jugglers do different things. The second version reverses the jugglers'
roles.
11/11
Medicine for the counting ill.
Asymmetry
We've been doing patterns of the a/a variety. Needless to say we could go on
forever although perhaps this would be pointless. I would nonetheless recommend
playing with some different counts: 6/6, 7/7, 8/8… 134/134 great for taking
turns at cooking the evening meal. But needless to say the two numbers don't
need to be the same, so:
3/2
Rachid catches twice followed by Shamira catching three times. If you practised
2/2 and 3/3 then this pattern is a cut and paste between the two. Contrary to
all the other previously encountered patterns this pattern cycles through its
2 states. By this I mean that the second time you go and grab the balls you
will begin with a different hand. It takes ten throws(or catches) to get back
to the beginning.
So for example Rachid alternates between Right, Left and Left, Right, between
Inside/Outside and Outside/Inside. Shamira alternates between R L R and L R
L, O I O and I O I.
I think that by now you can work these things out, but here are some other fun
combinations:
2/1
One version of this pattern is a real standard although it is usually done one
juggler behind the other. The juggler juggling the 1 ends up throwing it back
and forth to herself.
The other version is rather delightfully unexpected and gives some interesting
hand weaving.
4/3
Straightforward.
5/3, 4/2, 11/3 and so on ad infinitum.
More Complexity
Let's go further by adding one more segment.
3/3/2
Rachid does 3 catches, Shamira does 3 catches, Rachid does 2 catches and it
starts all over again with the roles reversed, Shamira does 3 catches, Rachid
does 3 catches Shamira does 2 catches and we are right back to where we started.
The pattern has three segments and two jugglers so each juggler will end up
doing every part of the pattern. This pattern can hurt the mind.
3/2/1
I found this particularly difficult to learn.
2/2/1 and 2/1/1
These are total brain melters, monitor how long it is before you can have a
conversation at the same time.
5/3/1, 2/3/1, 11/2/124 or 2/1/2/3 or 4/17/2/124
Needless to say you can add as many segments as you desire.
Different Positions (Illustration 18)
Some of these positions are illegal in some countries.
The above is an extract from the leaflet for the Patterns video which contains all of the above plus a lot more and is available from Gandini Video Productions at £17.50 + £2,50 p&p.
Popcorns II: asymmetry, synchronicity and more people  Top 
Author: Sean Gandini
Credits: Kaskade 70
See the previous part, Popcorns
I
Download a ZIP archive with popcorn
patterns for JoePass!.
For this article we shall assume that you have read last issues' article. Last time we looked at 2 person symmetric popcorns. This time round lets look at some different kinds of popcorns and how one expands the popcorn idea to more people. Again even though the article is very notation heavy and slightly theoretical it is very much rooted in real world juggling patterns. I highly recommend downloading Joe pass and the files for a lot of these patterns. Ok so here we go:
Up to now we have assumed that both jugglers lift into the same amount of objects.
This is not always necessarily the case. We can build popcorns where both jugglers
lift into different amounts. Lets imagine for example that you want juggler
one to lift into 5 objects and juggler two to lift into 4 objects. This would
be a 1 pass 8 object popcorn. We obviously won't do the charts for all of the
possible asymmetric patterns but for reference below is part of the 8 object
asymmetric 4/5 popcorn.
554.5p44444444.5p333  
4p444p  54p44444p3  554p4444444p33  5554p444444444p333 
53.5p4443.5p  553.5p444443.5p3  5553.5p44444443.5p33  
553p44443p 
554p4444444p33
Note that we now need to show both passers roles since the pattern is asymmetric.
Note also that the pattern 554p4444444p33 illustrated above should strickly
speaking be written as 554p4444p333444; that is the second part of the pattern
starts on the pass. We find that for the purposes of this article and to illustrate
the particularities of popcorns the notation we have chosen is clearer.
There is also a whole family of patterns which have the jugglers lifting into the same amount of objects but holding their patterns for different amounts of time. So there is a further expansion of each pattern in the original symmetric charts which involves elongating the numbers on one side whilst shortening the numbers on the other side. So for example below is the expansion of the classic popcorn into its 3 mutations.
444p333  44p33334444p33  4p3333344444p3 
444p333
44p33334444p33
4p3333344444p3
Every pattern can be mutated this way. In fact we can combine the two procedures above to generate a third family, popcorns of different lengths and different amount of objects. Lets look at the mutations of 554p4444444p33 a pattern which we met before:
555554p4p33333  55554p444p3333  5554p44444p333  554p4444444p33  54p444444444p3 
It is also possible to progressively lift into a given pattern. For example
if we take the 8 object 2 pass popcorn: 554p4p33,
the jugglers take turns at lifting from 3 to 5 objects. We can stagger the lifting
by separating the passes. So lets look at the pattern 554p4p33 which we met
in the 8 object 2 pass chart last issue. So by inserting some 4s the pattern
becomes:
554p44p334,
the bold 4s are the inserted 4s.
then 554p444p3344 and so on and so forth. So essentially any popcorn pattern with more than 1 pass can be progressive!
554p44p334  554p444p3344  554p4444p33444  554p44444p334444 
Needless to say we can use the staggering procedure that we met above to make the patterns asymmetrical.
Ok so what happens if there are more jugglers involved. Once again we shall only look at patterns where all jugglers do the same thing at different times. Spatially the jugglers can stand wherever they want, for practical reasons however the easiest way to juggle these patterns in a triangle or a line formation.
So lets look at 3 jugglers with 10 objects. Here each juggler will take turns
at lifting from 3 objects to 4 objects.
Below is the chart expanded in the same way as the 2 person chart.
Here the chart increases Horizontally by adding a 4 on the left side of the
pass and 2 x 3 on the other side.
It increases Vertically by adding 0.3 to the pass.
5p33333  45p3333333  445p333333333  4445p33333333333  44445p3333333333333  444445p333333333333333 
4.6p3333  44.6p333333  444.6p33333333  4444.6p3333333333  44444.6p333333333333  444444.6p33333333333333 
4.3p333  44.3p33333  444.3p3333333  4444.3p333333333  44444.3p33333333333  444444.3p3333333333333 
4p33  44p3333  444p333333  4444p33333333  44444p3333333333  444444p333333333333 
3.6p3  43.6p333  443.6p33333  4443.6p3333333  44443.6p333333333  444443.6p33333333333 
3.3p  43.3p33  443.3p3333  4443.3p333333  44443.3p33333333  444443.3p3333333333 
43p3  443p333  4443p33333  44443p3333333  444443p333333333 
Again note that the column on the left side of the chart has the 1count, 2count, 3count, 4count…patterns.
Lets now look at 11 object 3 person popcorns. There are 1 pass and 2 pass versions of this. Below is the 1 pass version.
6.3p3333  446.3p33333  44446.3p333333  4444446.3p3333333  444444446.3p33333333 
5.6p333  445.6p3333  44445.6p33333  4444445.6p333333  444444445.6p3333333 
5p33  445p333  44445p3333  4444445p33333  444444445p333333 
4.3p3  444.3p33  44444.3p333  4444444.3p3333  444444444.3p33333 
3.6p  443.6p3  44443.6p33  4444443.6p333  444444443.6p3333 
443p  44443p3  4444443p33  444444443p333 
For fun lets look at a small selection from the 4 person charts:
Below is the 13 object 1 pass charts. The chart increases vertically by adding 0.25 to the pass and horizontally by adding one 4 on one side and 3 x 3 on the other.
5p3333333  45p3333333333  445p333333333333  4445p33333333333333 
4.75p333333  44.75p333333333  444.75p333333333333  4444.75p3333333333333 
4.5p33333  44.5p33333333  444.5p33333333333  4444.5p333333333333 
4.25p3333  44.25p3333333  444.25p3333333333  4444.25p33333333333 
4p333  44p333333  444p333333333  4444p3333333333 
3.75p33  43.75p33333  443.75p33333333  4443.75p333333333 
3.5p3  43.5p3333  443.5p3333333  4443.5p33333333 
3.25p  43.25p333  443.25p333333  4443.25p3333333 
The 14 object chart for 4 jugglers, is the same as the 7 object chart for 2
juggler so it has not been included.
All the 2 person charts can be transformed into 4 person charts by doubling
the jugglers and the amount of objects.
If you have got this far with me then you can imagine how to construct charts for more jugglers.
Essentially one can draw the same kind of charts as the asynchronous popcorns. However things get slightly complicated. We mentioned in the last article that we defined popcorns as jugglers juggling a certain amount of objects in ground state and lifting/descending into a different amount of objects still in ground state.
If a lone juggler jugglers 4 objects asynchronously there is only one way of staying in ground state, that is throwing 4s. This is not the case for synchronous 4. One can throw (4,4) or (4x,4x), two different ways of staying ground state. For odd numbers of balls there are 4 different ways of staying ground state.
What this basically means is that every pattern has numerous equivalent versions.
However bearing this in mind the chart process still works. Below are examples
of the various charts.
7 Objects:
(4,5p)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)  (4,4)(4,4p)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)  (4,4)(4,4)(4,4p)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)  (4,4)(4,4)(4,4)(4,4p)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)(4x,2x) 
(4,4p)(4x,2x)  (4,4)(4,4p)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)  (4,4)(4,4)(4,4p)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)  (4,4)(4,4)(4,4)(4,4p)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)(4x,2x) 
(4,3p)  (4,4)(4,3p)(4x,2x)  (4,4)(4,4)(4,3p)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)  (4,4)(4,4)(4,4)(4,3p)(4x,2x)(4x,2x)(4x,2x) 
And for fun:
9 Objects:
(7p,4)(4,4)(4,4)  (4x,6x)(7p,4)(4,4)(4,4)(4,4)  (4x,6x)(7p,4)(4,4)(4,4)(4,4) 
(6p,4)(4,4)  (4,6x)(6p,4)(4,4)(4,4)  (6x,4)(4,6x)(6p,4)(4,4)(4,4)(4,4) 
(5p,4x)  (4,6x)(5p,4x)(4,4)  (4,6x)(5p,4x)(4,4) 
(4,6x) (4p,4x)  (4,6x) (4p,4)(4,4) 
So needless to say we can make the synchronous charts for more jugglers.
Below is the chart for 3 jugglers and 10 objects.
(6p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)  (4,4)(6p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)  2 times (4,4)(5.3p,4) 9 times (2x,4x) 
(5.3p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)  (4,4)(5.3p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)  2 times (4,4)(5.3p,4) 8 times (2x,4x) 
(4.6p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)  (4,4)(4.6p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)  (4,4)(4,4)(4.6p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x) 
(4p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)  (4,4)(4p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)  (4,4)(4,4)(4p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x) 
(3.3p,4)(2x,4x)  (4,4)(3.3p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)  (4,4)(4,4)(3.3p,4)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x)(2x,4x) 
One can of course combine the above ideas. So you can use the above as a cookbook and make your own recipes. For example you might enjoy making 3 person progressive synchronous asymmetric popcorns. One can combine synchronous and asynchronous patterns.
So too finish an 3 person asymmetric 11 object popcorn with one juggler lifting from 3 to 4, one juggler lifting form 4 to 5 and one juggler lifting synchronously from 3 to 4.
So that's the end of our exploration of popcorn patterns. I would like once again to stress that these patterns are a lot of fun to juggle. Getting confortable with the notation and the diagrams takes a while but the juggling rewards are huge. I lookforwards to any feedback you might have on these ideas and I hope that you get something out of them.
See the previous part, Popcorns I
Download a ZIP archive with popcorn
patterns for JoePass!.
As an addendum to the last article we would like to add that a 2 person pattern
can be done in several different different ways, depending on the hand throwing
order. So for example the classic 7 object 2 count 4p3 in 4 different ways:
 Both jugglers starting with their rights.
 Both Jugglers starting with their lefts.
 Juggler one starts right and Juggler 2 starts left.
 Juggler one starts left and Juggler 2 starts right.
This is the same for patterns of an even period. Patterns of an odd period have just 2 versions.
Now whereas the 2 person popcorn charts have either 2 or 4 different hand arrangements, the 3 person patterns have 4 or 8 different possibilities. So choosing the easiest or most convenient way of juggling a particular patterns will not always be easy. I suggest trying different possibilities using intuition to guide you.
An extended version of this articles including all the charts and files for
joe pass can be found at http://www.gandinijuggling.com/popcorns.htm
New Passing site on the internet www.passingdb.com
has many films of patterns relevant to this article.
Wolfgang Westerboers fantastic passing animator http://www.koelnvention.de/software/index.html
For an understanding of states: Mark Thomas http://www.markthomasonline.co.uk/state.html
Never Look Away  Top 
Author: Wolfgang Westerboer
Credits: Kaskade 56
The illustrations are taken from Charlie Dancey's great book, the Compendium of Club Juggling, and the title is the first of his three "Golden Rules of Club Passing" (by kind permission of the author). 
What is more important when passing: throwing or catching? Think about this before reading on.
For me, both are equally important. Somebody has to catch my throw  either my partner or myself. If the throw is sloppy, it will be difficult to catch, which means that the pattern will get shaky and may collapse altogether. I reckon jugglers in general don't pay enough attention to their passing throws and just accept that their partner is going to have to work hard to catch them. Who cares, they think, as long as the pattern keeps going somehow. Which is OK as far as it goes, I suppose, but it looks terrible.
Let's kick off with a pattern that's simple yet interesting and offers lots of scope for variations. And one that not everybody thinks they can already do easily.
2 jugglers throw 5 clubs,
A always throws across (cross throws)
B always throws straight ("tramlines"),
Every club is passed, i.e. all left and right throws are passes, not selfthrows (1count or "ultimate" passing)
Start:
A holds 2 clubs in the right hand, 1 club in the left,
B holds 1 club in the right hand, 1 club in the left
Both throw with the right hand first
A and B throw alternately: B throws exactly between A's throws.
The rhythm is perfectly even: throw, catch, throw, catch,...
This pattern is relatively easy to follow, so both partners have time to concentrate
on everything: Am I getting the rhythm, the direction and the spin right? How
is my throwing technique? Is my body posture OK? etc.
We've made a habit of starting our passing sessions with this pattern to get
used to each other's styles. And it's a really good exercise for rightandleft
passing (see P 6).
Note:
Be careful not to go too slow. You shouldn't have the feeling that there's a
pause in the pattern. Try throwing flats (throws with no spins)  that will
speed things up automatically.
The rhythm here is similar to the singlespin version (P 1), except that everything gets higher and slower.
The sequence is totally even: throw, pause,...
Everything else is as in P 1
This pause gives you time to do things like pirouettes and somersaults, or let someone else take over your clubs and your position...
After you've been experimenting for a while, you'll probably notice that there
are other ways of throwing doubles. One is to delay the throw, which feels like
this:
Throw, pause, pause,...
Otherwise, everything stays as in P 1
Your own pass just about slips past the incoming club from your partner.
The two pauses can now be filled in with whatever moves you have time for (see
above). However, the difficulty with this pattern is that you tend to fall back
into P 2. To counteract this tendency, you can juggle a 2club shower while
waiting for your partner's pass to arrive: double pass, single self, hand across.
The pass from your partner lands in the hand that does not catch the self. You
could both do this at the same time, though at first it's probably better if
you take it in turns. Important: practise the shower on both sides, not just
one  the pattern is much easier if the juggling is continuous.
The pattern only works if both partners maintain the right rhythm. The partner
throwing across should make sure that the throws don't fly like propellers,
a typical mistake when passing diagonally (watch out for this on P 5 and P 6
too).
If you can keep the rhythm going without the minishower, you have time for
other things. For example, you could do a couple of flourishes (twirling the
club in your hand). The problem here is that to do a flourish you have to catch
the pass with the club the other way up. In other words, the thumb of your catching
hand should be pointing down and your elbow out to the side. The cross pass
is easier to catch like this than the tramline pass.
Note:
If you throw at "normal" speed, the pass throws go much higher than
a normal single pass or the self when you squeeze in the 2club shower. To be
precise, they should be the same height as the throws in 7 clubs 1 count.
Alternatively, one of the partners could throw singles and the other doubles.
In this case, both partners start at the same time (more difficult).
These patterns are great for throwing "at random", meaning that you don't always have to stick to your role as a tramline or cross passer, but can choose to throw to your partner's "wrong" hand for a change. This is great fun, but both partners have to be wide awake.
Most people know the box pattern with balls: throw straight up on the right,
simultaneously hand across from left to right, straight up on the left, simultaneously
hand across from right to left.
Here is a 5club passing pattern based on this technique:
Both partners throw straight ("tramlines")
A throws doubles, B throws singles
A juggles the box, B juggles in the same rhythm as in P 2
Start:
A: 2 clubs in the right hand, 1 in the left
B: 1 club in the right, 1 in the left
Start out of synch, i.e. B passes around the incoming club
A always hands the same club across between passes.
Notes:
B can incorporate a minishower or something similar (see Pattern 3). A's rhythm
is too tight for that.
Both jugglers can throw to the same height if B starts a bit earlier than usual
(but still later than A). In that case, both throw high singles or low doubles.
You don't have to throw tramlines: both can throw either always cross passes
or always tramlines, but you can't mix, sometimes cross passes, sometimes tramlines.
With this pattern it's particularly important to keep cool, juggle slowly and
throw accurately.
2 jugglers with 7 clubs,
A throws every club straight (tramlines)
B throws every club across
Start:
A: 2 clubs in the right hand, 2 in the left,
B: 1 club in the right hand, 2 in the left
A and B both start with a throw from the right.
A typical problem with this pattern is that people try to throw "normal"
singles. It is possible, but it's incredibly fast. If you prefer things to be
more relaxed, try throwing the clubs at a height somewhere between double and
single, i.e. roughly head height.
Reread the note on Patterns 2 and 3, and especially try Pattern 3 to get a feeling
for the height. Take a look ahead to Pattern 6 too.
This 6club pattern is an excellent exercise to prepare for 7 clubs 1 count.
2 jugglers pass 6 clubs
A always passes across, B always passes straight (tramlines)
Both throw in a pass pass self rhythm
A throws a passing box: pass, pass, hand across
Start:
A: 1 club in the right hand, 2 in the left
B: 1 club in the right hand, 2 in the left
To start with, A can pass doubles and B singles. The start sequence is then
as follows: A goes pass, pass, hand across; B goes self, pass, pass. Both throw
with the right hand first.
However, it's easier if both partners throw to the same height. A throws lower,
B throws higher, both roughly to head height (see notes on Pattern 3). As B
now has to start earlier, she might as well start with pass, pass, self with
the left hand as soon as the first pass from A is in the air. The result is
a calm passing pattern in which the passes go to exactly the same height as
in 7 clubs 1 count, except that this time both partners do a self, which makes
things easier to control.
Some of you might want to point out that some of the patterns presented here
cannot be true 1 counts  and you would be right. Even though we talk about
1 counts throughout, in fact we've been describing patterns that range from
1 count to 3 count, as you might have noticed when we varied Pattern 2 to make
Pattern 3. The background: many of the patterns described here contain "throws"
that are in fact pauses  the club is not released but held. Often you don't
notice it while juggling, which is why a pattern appears to have fewer selfthrows,
or none at all. But if you know about the hidden (nonthrown) self, you can
easily construct patterns in which, for example, one partner throws twice while
the other throws 3 times.
Here's a quote from Charlie's book on the Seven Club One Count: This is a
very unusual Passing Pattern  one of the very few in the Compendium of Club
Juggling that uses half beats. All of the patterns presented here (except
P 2) involve both partners throwing passes that can be the same height or they
can be at different heights. In P 1 A passes a 2 and B passes a 3, or both passes
are equivalent to 2.5. In all of the other patterns, one partner passes a 3
and the other a 4, or both pass a 3.5. To throw to the same height, one partner
must throw slightly early  to be precise, one halfbeat early.
Never Say Sorry  Top 
Author: Wolfgang Westerboer
Credits: Kaskade 58
(Illustration from: Charlie Dancey's Compendium of Club Juggling, p. 90, "Golden Rules of Club Passing", by kind permission of the author.) 
Usually when you juggle you throw alternately, first with the right hand,
then with the left hand, or vice versa. Occasionally you might even throw with
both hands simultaneously. There are not many patterns in which the same hand
throws several times in succession. Yet those patterns can really add a touch
of spice to your juggling. The term "hurries" has come to be generally
accepted for these moves, for reasons which will become obvious when you first
try them. After a while, though, you can learn to calm things down a bit. And
for most hurries there is also a variation that involves both hands throwing
alternately as usual. More about that in the Theory section, which also contains
some notes on the site swaps. But let's begin with the practical side. I've
described the tricks in considerable detail and drawn causal diagrams to make
it easier for you to get into the patterns and the causal diagrams.
To enable the same hand to throw twice in succession, it has to catch two clubs
in succession. In all of the patterns described in this series so far, that
doesn't happen. Why not? Because both jugglers dutifully throw to the hand whose
turn it is to catch next. But what if this order is broken? Take P7 from Part
2 of the series, for example: the 6 club 3count. Most of you will have tried
this out in the meantime. It helps a lot to use a different colour for the clubs
that get passed to distinguish them from the selfclubs. It's always the same
club that gets passed diagonally, and always the same club that gets passed
straight.
<3px 3* 33px 3* 3>
Here is a variation on that pattern: Juggler A passes with the right hand 
but for the sake of devilment, she doesn't pass straight to B's left hand but
diagonally to B's right hand. For A, nothing has changed so far, but B now has
a problem. This shows up clearly in the causal diagram: the first pass from
A (top line) goes from right to right and forces B to throw twice with his right
hand  first a pass and then immediately afterwards a self. As a consequence,
each juggler now throws with opposite hands: A left, B right, etc. The revenge
for A's deed comes a few throws later, when she suddenly gets a club thrown
back at her wrong hand (see Fig. 13)
If you're superstitious, you'll find the numbering of this trick highly appropriate:
it just refuses to work, because both throw the following pass on the same side
of the pattern, A with the left, B with the right, increasing the likelihood
of collisions.
<3p 3 3 3px 3 3 3px 3* 33p 3 3 3p 3* 3 3p 3 3>
To make life easier for both of you, A decides to throw another diagonal pass,
this time left to left. That gets you back into the normal 3count.
As you can see from the causal diagram, the Hurries are equally divided between
the two jugglers after the two passes: the first is B's problem, the second
is A's. After that, both can throw in the normal 3count pattern. This ends
our first (successful?) expedition to the world of the Hurries.
<3px 3 3 3px 3* 3  3p 3* 3 3p 3 3>
This is surely the most famous pattern of the outgoing 20th century. It is
nothing other than P14, but without a break. This is a real rightleft pattern
with Hurries for both. Try it, it's really not as difficult as you think. (The
other day we managed it during a "rightleft passing for beginners"
workshop.)
After the first diagonal pass from A the passes are always thrown twice in succession
from the same hand, i.e.: right pass, left pass, left pass, right pass. Of course,
there are also a number selfs in between, but they would only have got in the
way if I'd included them here.
The diagram (Fig. 15) shows only the first half of the pattern. As the hands
are swapped around at the end of P14, the second part of the pattern is simply
a mirror image of the first half.
<3px 3 3 3p 3 3  3p 3* 3 3px 3* 3>
Another way of getting out of the problem you've created for yourselfs in P13: A and B always pass diagonally in alternation. Then all the Hurries are at B's end. A passes with both hands to B's right hand. B only passes with his right hand, alternating between straight and diagonal throws.
<4x* 2* 3px  3 3 3p>
This is another pattern in which one juggler is lumbered with all the Hurries. B "forces himself" to throw a Hurry (unlike P13, in which it was A who forced her partner into the Hurry). B begins with a double from the right, immediately after a pass. Doubles normally go to the same hand, but he throws this one to his left hand, causing the problem for himself  in a few moments this club is going to land in his wrong hand. Before that happens, B simply waits. In the causal diagram you'll notice that the arrow from the left hand points back to the same hand, which simply means: keep hold of the club. But then the double from the right has to be caught  with the left hand. And that is also where the pass from A is about to land. So B has to empty that left hand as quickly as possible. He can't pass straight ahead (because the pass from A is winging its way in, see P13), so he has to pass diagonally (see P14). Again, this pattern can be repeated continually without a break.
<4p 3 3 4p 3* 3 4p 3 3 3 5px 3 3 5px 3 3 5px 3*>
In the normal 7club 3count one juggler passes straight and the other passes diagonally. However, now B, who should be passing straight, decides to throw all passes diagonally. This naturally creates Hurries, which are equally distributed between the two partners. Even so, the pattern is somewhat unbalanced in the sense that one hand passes more often than the other. Which hand does more passing depends, of course, on how you start. What better way of exercising your weaker hand? As in P15, the causal diagram shows only the first half of the pattern.
Notes on the diagrams:
In part 2 of this workshop series the causal diagrams did not indicate which
hand is throwing. This is now essential, however, whereas there is no longer
any need to indicate whether a throw is a single, a double, or a whateverelse
 that naturally follows from the length of the arrow (see part 2, A Causal
Puzzle).
Following Martin Frost's suggestion (in Jugglers World, Summer 1994) I have
marked the Hurries with an asterisk *.
Mathematicians reading this article will probably have torn out all their hair by now. Each of the socalled site swaps contains a few special characters to denote whether the same hand throws again (indicated by *) or whether a pass should be diagonal instead of straight (x). This doesn't have much to do with the good old site swap notation in its classic form. Instead, I have noted down what you think you're throwing. I'd be happy to answer any questions on this subject by email (see address at the end of this article). If enough readers would be interested, I could go into the background in more detail in the next Kaskade.
For many Hurries there are variations which do without Hurries. You simply
insert a hold (a 2 in site swap) between the Hurries and adjust the length of
the other throws accordingly. Thus, a Hurry with the right hand disappears in
a hold with the left and a throw from the right. As a consequence, diagonal
passes have even site swap numbers. Take a look at P15. A throws diagonally,
her passes are therefore 4p; B throws straight, which is 3p. If the holds are
now inserted and the Hurries removed, the pattern becomes:
<4p 3 3 4p 2 3 3  3p 2 3 3 3p 3 3>
To ensure that both partners throw to the same height, A delays her throws by
half a beat (see part 1 of this workshop series), and both pass to a height
of 3.5. This pattern is only half as much fun, though, because the Hurries are
missing.
Here's a question to wrestle over: In which of the patterns can you not get
rid of the Hurry using this method?
On the Causal Puzzle:
Lay the pattern onto the basic puzzle framework you kept from part 2 of this
workshop. Note in pencil which hand is throwing. I'm not going to recommend
using a ballpoint pen because I don't get a cut from the sales of Kaskade or
the revenues of your copy shop.
References:
Charley Dancey, Compendium of Club Juggling, ISBN 1898591 14 8
Jugglers World, Summer 1994
Jugglers World, Fall 1997
Just the three of us  Top 
Author: Wolfgang Westerboer
Credits: Kaskade 59
The illustrations are taken from Charlie Dancey's Compendium of Club Juggling, p. 187, by kind permission of the author. 
So far this workshop series has covered passing patterns for two jugglers
only. Now it's time to add some variety by looking at patterns involving more
than two. More people mean more choices of where to pass to.
This article is divided into two parts. First of all, I list the most common
formations for deciding who passes to whom, and where to stand. To keep it simple,
these descriptions all involve 3 people juggling a total of 9 clubs.
The second part gives an overview of various patterns using these basic formations.
As always, there's a causal diagram to go with each pattern.
If there's a feeder (see below), that juggler's throws are always noted in the middle line. In the diagrams, the feeder is always juggler B. The person who dictates the rhythm is printed bolder in the diagrams, causals and siteswaps.
The classic pattern for 3 jugglers is the Feed. In a feed, one juggler, the feeder, distributes passes to 2 partners, the feedees, whereas both feedees pass only to the feeder. As a rule, that means that the feeder passes twice as often as the feedees. As the feedees cannot see each other, their best bet for keeping the rhythm is to keep pace with the feeder. The typical feeding configuration is shown in Figure 1. 
See Figure 2. In contrast to the feed, all the jugglers in a Triangle pass at the same time, e.g. they could all throw to the partner on their right, along the "outside lane" of the triangle. Or they could pass "inside" to the partner on the left (this feels very confusing at first, because somebody else's clubs suddenly pop up in front of your nose). Or they could alternate right and left  ouch! The pattern starts with everyone doing the old "updownpass" ritual in synch. What makes triangles a bit tricky is that you receive a club from one side while you're passing to the other side. I've trained myself to look first in the direction of the incoming club and then to look where my own pass went. Maybe then at least next time I can manage not to throw straight at my partner's head. If you're doing a 3count in a triangle, the clubs that are passed always stay on the same path: a club passed on the outside always comes back on the same outside lane. 
Looking at Figure 3, you might get the impression that the Line isn't much different from a triangle. And indeed, the jugglers have "only" positioned themselfs differently. But it's not quite that simple. The juggler in the middle finds it very hard to catch passes from the partner standing behind  trying can be painful, but succeeding looks great! The juggler in the middle passes blind, throwing the clubs back over his shoulder. The partner at the back has to tell the one in the middle where to throw to. Whether the club goes over to the left or the right of the middle juggler's head is almost irrelevant  it's primarily a matter of taste. A nice variation is where the middle juggler turns round to pass to the other partner  but it's not easy and has to be announced in advance as both of the other jugglers have to adjust their passes accordingly. Again, the juggler who dictates the rhythm is printed bold. 
The other day at a convention, somewhat spaced out after the usual nocturnal, insomniactivities, I was wandering around the gym at 12 in the morning when a thought came to me: Why do jugglers always throw clubs, but clubs never throw jugglers? Here's an idea: how about a passing sequence in which you switch from one formation to another, without stopping of course. A few throws in the feed position, then into a triangle, then transition to a line, then back to a triangle, then you all throw one club high, carry the others to your partner's position and catch the club that your partner threw. In other words, passing jugglers instead of clubs. Alternatively, you could put the clubs on the floor and swap places, or carry them and hand them over to a partner on the way to your new position. There are some simple patterns involving jugglers moving around and changing places while passing  and also some hellishly complex patterns. There isn't the space to describe them here  instead, I suggest you check them out at your next convention.
I'll confine my descriptions to feeds and triangles, leaving out the line (only because of lack of space). For a detailed descriptions of lines, see Charlie Dancey's Compendium of Club Juggling.
This is the best known feeding pattern. The feeder passes a 2count, the feedees
pass 4count. All start at the same time. The feeder (B) and juggler A begin
with a pass, C begins with a self.
As the feedees have quite a lot of spare time between passes, they can rescue
the pattern if they see that the feeder is in trouble. If he's not in trouble,
they can get him into trouble by doing chops or triples (instead of the right
self). How about one feedee doing only chops, the other doing only triples?!
Again, all start at the same time. However, in contrast to P19 the feedees start
with a self from the left hand. All passes are thrown as doubles. The feeder
throws a "normal" 7 club 2count, but as a feed, passing first to
A, then to C, etc. The feedees pass whenever they see the feeder's pass in midair
coming towards them  in other words, they respond to the feeder's pass. Remember,
the feedees pass doubles too.
A common problem with this pattern is that the passes from the feeder to the
left feedee (from B's point of view) collide with the incoming passes from the
right feedee. This is simply due to limited airspace. If the right feedee throws
a bit higher than usual, the feeder has room to throw his passes underneath.
The title illustration shows what it can look like.
The feedees juggle a waltz, the feeder does a passpassself rhythm. The jugglers
always pass simultaneously: the feeder receives a club from the feedee he's
just passing to. It helps to remember that the clubs are passed back to the
juggler who passed them to you. For the feedees, the pattern is pretty simple,
but the feeder has his work cut out for him. Many feeders find it easier to
start with the feedee on the right. He then throws: outside (pass right), outside
(pass left), self (right), inside (pass left), inside (pass right), self (left).
At the beginning the clubs seem to come fairly chaotically (and painfully) from
all directions, raining down on the poor feeder. After a while, though, you
get a feel for what's going on. It helps to juggle slowly and pass with long
swinging movements.
As mentioned above, the triangle is often thrown as a 3count. All the passes
go alternately to the right partner then to the left partner. Consequently,
each juggler passes to both of the others. To put it another way, all three
of you are feeders! If you start with the right partner, the sequence is: outside
(pass right), self, self, outside (pass left), self, self. Note that you pass
in one direction and receive from the other. You can't see both clubs at the
same time, so take care of yourself and your partners. For a change you could
also try passing only to your right (or only to your left) partner.
Now we're getting down to business! This pattern is a mixture of P21 and P22:
each juggler is feeding a passpassself. Note that each of the jugglers has
a different rhythm: one goes passpassself, one goes passselfpass, and one
goes selfpasspass. Theoretically you could all throw outside, outside, self,
inside, inside, self. But then the passes can easily collide. Don't be put off
by the diagram. The pattern looks complex, but it isn't really all that difficult.
The theoretical part of our workshop this time is fairly concrete  it's about
a feeding pattern and a problem. Let's start with the pattern.
Imagine you're doing P19 when along comes a fourth juggler (D) who wants to
join in. No problem  you reposition yourselfs as shown in Figure 4.
B and C feed  B with C and A, C with B and D. A and D do a 4count. You soon
get the hang of it. It's easiest if the two feeders start with the pass they
throw to each other, and then pass to their respective feedees: B passes first
to C, then to A; C passes first to B, then to D.
Now the problem  again a feeding pattern: The basic pattern is P20, the 10club
feed, and along comes juggler D again. He grabs three clubs and you position
yourself as described above. B and C start, but this time B starts with a pass
and C with a self (see description of P20). It works OK for about three throws,
then D starts complaining that something's going wrong. A doesn't agree. As
far as she's concerned, everything's fine.
In situations like this, D usually gets told to stop moaning  it's his fault,
he must be doing something wrong. After all, if A can do it, why can't D? After
a lot of arguing and more failed attempts, you decide to switch positions, and
now you discover that whoever stands in D's position has a genuine problem.
If D juggles the normal 10club feedee rhythm, the pattern simply cannot work.
What's wrong?
In a 10club feed, the feeder always passes first, and the feedee always responds
with a pass of her own (see P20). You can't simply turn things around and have
the feeder responding to the passes of the feedees, as passes and selfs would
then collide. Or, to be more precise: It is possible, but the feedees have to
change their rhythm. More on that later.
When D joins the group, he passes to C, one of B's feedees. We've just established,
however, that C responds to B's passes, i.e. C passes later than B. In order
for D to fit into the pattern, he has to pass in such a way that C can respond
to his passes too, i.e. D always has to pass before C. That can't be done with
a normal 4count, so D has to "overtake" C.
Here's how he does it. B sets the rhythm and starts with a pass to C; D starts
in with a pass to C at the same time as B throws his first pass to A. Then...
D waits. He simply holds two clubs until the moment when he has to empty his
left hand to catch the incoming pass from C. To do so, he throws a left self
and then a pass to C. (See Charlie Dancey, p. 33: "Double Return".)
That takes quite a long time  if he gets bored, he could do a 2club shower
instead: left self, right handacross, left self, right pass. This gives D's
pattern a clear rhythm (see Part 1 of this workshop series in Kaskade 56). It's
a pity that D can't start the pattern with all the others, but has to wait,
as described above. Here's the siteswap for this one:
< 3 3 3 4:2 4:3 3 4:1 3  3 4:2 3 4:4 1 3 4:3 3 >
Back to the pattern I promised you, in which the feedees pass ahead of the feeder.
After what I've just described, it's quite easy: Take 9 (!) clubs. Both feedees
throw a Double Return, the feeder responds to the incoming passes. <1 3 4:2
3  3 4:3 3 4:1 4:2 3 1 3 >
And to finish off, here is the same thing for 2 jugglers: both pass 4count,
with double spins. B throws a "normal" 4count, A overtakes him with
a 2club shower. < 4:2 3 1 3 3 4:1 3 3>
It only remains to mention that instead of handing the club across, you could
also throw it as a triple (substitute a 5 for the 1 in the siteswaps). For each
substitution, add one club.
References:
Charley Dancey, Compendium of Club Juggling, ISBN 1898591 14 8
Check out the rec.juggling discussion forum. The participants often discuss
new patterns and ideas. Go to conventions. Meet other jugglers. Have fun. ;)
... but you can never hide  Top 
Author: Wolfgang Westerboer
Credits: Kaskade 60
The illustrations are taken from Charlie Dancey's Compendium of Club Juggling, p. 187, by kind permission of the author. 
This time we're going to take another look at feeds patterns that involve more
than 2 jugglers. Don't know what I'm talking about? Then take another look at
the last issue of Kaskade.
Last time I mentioned the possibility of combining passing with moving around.
It's especially easy to do that while feeding: two of the partners keep the
juggle going, while the third gathers in his clubs, runs to his new position
and rejoins the pattern from there. He could also continue juggling as he runs
it's all a question of keeping up the rhythm.
But whether juggling or not, you should still be counting as you move to a new
position. Otherwise you might be in for a nasty surprise, as the title of this
workshop suggests in some patterns you'll be walking right through the line
of flying clubs, so please be careful! Reading this article is fairly safe,
but actually juggling the patterns is not. I, for my part, am not taking any
responsibility for injuries sustained while trying them out.
This time I'm going to stick to the 2count variants of the patterns. If you
prefer to throw with both hands, you can try the patterns with a left 2count.
I'll save runarounds with combined left and right passes for later editions.
Let's start with something easy. A, B and C are standing in the positions shown
in Fig. 1 ac.
A and B are passing 6 clubs in a 2count rhythm. C already raises his open left
hand that will make things easier for B in a few moments.
Without advance warning, B now starts passing to C. As C is already holding
up his catching hand, B can see exactly where she has to throw to. A continues
throwing to B, which means that after a while, A no longer has any clubs, and
B and C are passing together.
When everyone has calmed down again, A can move to the position shown in Fig.
1b, next to B. C turns slightly so that he's looking at A, and the 2nd round
can begin. Try the pattern in all positions. I've shown the first 3 positions
in Fig. 1. After that the pattern repeats itself, except that you're standing
in slightly different places.
Try to keep the pattern going without a break: you never pass back to the partner
you received from, but always to the third juggler. At the beginning that means:
as soon as A has passed his last club to B he runs to his new position. Just
before he gets there he receives his first club from C, for whom the rule also
applies: never throw back to B.
While running, always keep your eye on the pattern. You move around anticlockwise,
while the pattern rotates clockwise. Don't rush and panic. You have two whole
beats with nothing in your hands. And if you already take your first step as
you're passing your last club, and take your last step (backwards) as you catch
your first club from the other partner, you'll find you have plenty of time.
The idea is not to first get to the new position and only then turn round. If
you do that, you'll probably have to catch the pass with your teeth. Running
and turning is all one movement.
To add some spice to the proceedings, you can add an extra club. At the start,
B has 3 clubs, A has 3 clubs, and C already has 1 club. Each of you will always
throw to the same partner: B always to C, A always to B, C always to A.
A and B start together. As C already has one club, he starts to throw to A's
new position one beat earlier than in R2. Take your time, throw slowly, calm
the pattern down. It won't work if you get hectic. I've drawn you a causal diagram
for the pattern. The diagram shows you that there's enough time to pass and
run across it's not necessary to carry the extra club across, though you can
if you want to. When you only have one club remaining in your left hand, you
go across, handing it from left to right as you go. That slows the pattern down
and makes it easier.
More clubs: R1 and R2 can also be done with more than 6 clubs. Using 7 clubs,
the rhythm is alternating and you pass doubles, as in a normal 2person 7club
pattern. The same can also be done with 8 clubs, and it's easier than you might
think.
Fewer clubs: The fewer clubs you use, the easier the juggling. The main difficulty
here is not to lose the rhythm. Take a look on the Internet. I've written the
basic patterns for 37 clubs and 3 jugglers for JoePass! (but only the pattern
with 7 clubs contains a description of the movement).
Other patterns, more jugglers: This is the subject of a separate section.
Runaround the other way around. Instead of running to the right of the pattern
to stand at your opposite number's left side, the idea is now to stand on his/her
right. Of course, you could run all the way around both partners. But it's more
exciting to go straight through the middle. At first sight, you might think
that this is not so very different from R2, but you'd be wrong. As you have
to run through the pattern, you have to pay very close attention to the passing
rhythm, otherwise it could hurt.
When only one juggler is running, you don't move around in a circle, as in R1
R3, but move sideways along a straight line (Fig. 2). Alternatively, when your
partner has just run away, you could step across into his/her vacated position,
in which case the pattern rotates on the spot (Fig. 3). This is more suitable
for conventions and other places where space is limited.
As A makes his last pass, he gets ready to run, waits until B and C have passed,
then goes through the pattern, turning so that he backs into his new position
while receiving from C. The interesting thing is that instead of passing to
the person on the right of the pair standing opposite you, you now pass to the
person on the left. That means that the flight paths of the passes now cross
each other, and there is a danger of midair collisions. For this reason, the
passers should not pass at the same heights. We have made it a rule that the
passes to the juggler who's just arrived at a new position fly slightly higher
and are therefore in the air slightly longer. In Figs. 2b and 3b that means:
C passes slightly higher than B.
Find yourselfs another juggler and a total of 9 clubs. Imagine (or draw) a
pentagon on the floor. A juggler is now standing at 4 of the 5 corners of the
pentagon, leaving one corner empty (Fig. 4).
The rules are the same as before: When you have no more clubs, you run. But
in a curve to the left, as in R4, not to the right, as in R13. Yes, you go
through the pattern.
When you only have one club left, start to move with the pass. You have to go
into the middle of the pattern before the pass from your left neighbour. Now
three clubs fly around you (you hope!) in all different directions.
The first time you try this, you should interrupt the move at this point. The
others should stop passing. When everyone has calmed down again, you can try
the full sequence. Start as before, but this time don't stop in the middle,
continue forward as soon as the clubs have gone past. This should be a fluid
movement, and not too fast. If you go too fast, you just run right into the
passes. So please, BE CAREFUL!
You can do the Shooting Star with one extra club. That makes it slightly faster,
and you begin to understand where the name came from.
Never Loose Count  Top 
Author: Wolfgang Westerboer / Christian Holl?nder
Credits: Kaskade 57
(Illustration from: Charlie Dancey's Compendium of Club Juggling, p. 90, "Golden Rules of Club Passing", by kind permission of the author.) 
This time we present the basic pattern of leftright passing: the 3count. In this pattern, every third throw is a pass, followed by two selfs. The passes come from the left and right hand alternately. Passing with both hands is a lot of fun, and can help you to improve your posture and your juggling in general.
This is a relatively simple pattern that leaves lots of scope for variations.
There are enough selfthrows to allow you to incorporate solo tricks, and enough
passes for both partners to practise passing tricks.
2 jugglers throw 6 clubs, A and B both throw straight. Every third club is passed:
Pass, Self, Self, Pass, Self, Self... Look at the illustration. The white part
in the middle represents the repeating pattern.
Start:
A holds 2 clubs in the right hand, 1 club in the left
B holds 2 clubs in the right, 1 club in the left
Both A and B start at the same time with a righthand pass
(Grafik Muster 7)
Passing with the left hand will feel strange to start with, but don't worry, you'll soon get used to it. Even so, for most people it takes time and practice before they're able to pass as accurately with their left hand as they do with their right. At the beginning it helps to make a conscious effort to pass from the inside to the outside.
441 variations are all based on a pattern that you're probably familiar with
from solo juggling: after throwing 2 doubles (D), you hand (or "feed")
one across (F). Try it out. Notice that the pattern alternates from side to
side: the first cycle starts with the right hand, the second with the left,
etc.
Start for P8 to P11:
As in P7 or
straight out of an ongoing 3count
In the following descriptions the "normal" passing beat is underlined.
That should make it easier to get into the following patterns, starting from
the basic P7.
Two basic principles that apply to all throws:
Singles (S) are thrown to the other hand, i.e. from right to left or from left
to right. Doubles (D) go to the same hand, i.e. from right to right or from
left to left.
Single passes (SP) are thrown straight, from right to left or from left to right.
Double passes (DP) go diagonally, from right to right or from left to left.
That might sound trivial, but it's an important point  regardless of whether
you're throwing a self or a pass: singles go to the other hand, doubles to the
same hand.
Underneath the incoming pass you throw a double, followed by a diagonal double
pass to your partner, then hand the remaining club across, the "feed"
(F). Now you can either repeat the same pattern on the other side or go back
to the normal 3count pattern. A quote from Charley Dancey on the feed (p. 21):
"...this produced a causal arrow moving one beat to the left. It seems
illogical but it actually means: to place a club into the hand you had to empty
it first."
(Grafik Muster 8)
A throws the double self not underneath the incoming pass but at the same time
as B throws her pass. Just before that, A has thrown a double pass to B. The
double self is followed by the feed. At the beginning you'll probably find it
quite difficult to keep P8 and P9 apart  especially when you're trying to juggle
them.
(Grafik Muster 9)
With this variation the 4 4 1 combination is divided between the two jugglers.
Juggler A passes a double instead of the usual single. B could now simply hold
on to one club for a moment (H) and throw a self with the other hand, but of
course that would be a dead boring thing to do. Instead, she can throw a double
and feed a club across. It's great fun: you have to really watch for the moment
when your partner throws the double pass and then immediately throw the double
and do the feed.
(Grafik Muster 10)
A and B should take it turns to practise P8  P10. If both of you try to throw these patterns simultaneously, the clubs are likely to collide. If you throw P8  P10 solid, i.e. without reverting to the normal pattern in between cycles, you can also throw the passes as high singles. The selfs stay as normal singles and doubles. (See the Theory section in Part 1 of this workshop series.)
Try P8 to P11 in permanent alternation:
P8.1: <4 4p 1 3 3 3p  3 3 3p 4 4p 1 > P9.1: <4p 4 1 3 3p 3  3 3p
3 4p 4 1 >
P10.1: <4p 3 3 3p 4 1  3p 4 1 4p 3 3> P11.1: <4p 3 1 3 4p 3 3 4p
3 4p 3 1
Here's a mean trick to round off this series: A throws a double pass, as in
P9. However, B does not respond in the "normal" way, i.e. with a single
pass, but instead goes straight into P10 and throws a double pass too. A can
now throw a single rather than a double, followed by a feed, and the pattern
is rescued. Alternatively, A could pause for 2 beats, holding onto his clubs.
(Grafik Muster 11)
We've chosen a really smart pattern to finish with: the 5count with 7 clubs.
This is likely to make life slightly difficult even for experienced passers.
Start:
A: 2 clubs in the right hand, 2 in the left
B: 2 clubs in the right hand, 1 in the left
(Grafik Muster 12)
As with the 3count, the second cycle starts with a throw from the other hand.
The difficult thing about this pattern is not so much the passes, although at
the beginning you'll probably tend to throw them too high. No, it's the double
selfs that cause the real headaches. Make sure that you're throwing the doubles
to roughly the same height as your partner, otherwise you'll lose the rhythm.
And don't throw the doubles too low or you'll get more midair collisions.
Here are a few more variations on the 7 Club 5Count (roughly in increasing
order of difficulty):
<6p 3 3 3 33 3 3 5p 3> <3p 3 3 4 44 4 4p 3 3> <4p 3 5p 3 33
4p 3 3 4p>
<4p 3 4p 3 3p3 4p 3 4p 4p> <4p 4p 4p 4p 3  3 3p 3p 3p 4p >
And if you still haven't had enough, you can try to throw all of these variations in succession without a break in between.
Don't be put off by the amount of text that follows. This section contains more patterns than the whole of the rest of this workshop article  you just have to piece them together for yourselfs.
Causal Diagrams were developed in the early 90s by Martin Frost. In the summer
1994 issue of Jugglers World he wrote:
"Each arrow represents a throw. This causal notation not only displays
the sequence of throws that each juggler has to execute in a pattern, but it
shows which clubs force other clubs to be thrown."
Our thanks to Martin for having this idea and allowing us to use it in this
workshop.
Causal Diagrams make it easy to write down and read juggling patterns.
The pattern is read from left to right. Each throw is represented by an arrow.
The hands always throw alternately, starting with the right (for now!)
The length of the arrow tells us how long a club is in the air, and also how
many times the club spins  under normal circumstances. The spin is indicated
by a letter: S = single, D = double, H = hold. (There's nothing to stop you
putting lots of wrist into a single to make it a triple. But please warn your
partner before you try it.)
First, take another look at the diagrams in the first part of this workshop.
Now, here comes the puzzle which you can use to build simple passing patterns
for 2 jugglers and 6 clubs. The basic pattern (grey background) consists of
two jugglers each throwing singles on their own. In other words, both of them
are juggling a cascade.
If you now lay the jigsaw pieces onto the base plan, you automatically get a
passing pattern.
(Grafik Puzzle)
How about a 6club 5count, i.e. a 6 club pattern with cycles that are 5 throws
long? Or a 3count in which one of you passes only doubles and the other only
singles? Oh yes, and don't forget to actually juggle the patterns you've made!
I hope you enjoy playing with this.
Don't throw the plan away  you're going to need it again later on.